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      Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management (submit here)

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      Is Open Access

      The risk factors and prevention of cardiovascular disease: the importance of electrocardiogram in the diagnosis and treatment of acute coronary syndrome


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          Acute coronary syndrome is a leading cause of emergency medical treatment and hospitalization in Poland. High-speed electrocardiogram (ECG) has shown good accuracy of the initial diagnosis and of the final diagnosis in treated cardiac patients. Initial diagnosis and definitive diagnosis were analyzed statistically ( P<0.0001). Although much is said about the prevention of sudden death in heart failure, the elimination of risk factors health care in Poland does not pay due attention to the need for early diagnosis and ECG analysis (at the stage of prevention). This article presents the inclusion of ECG in the prevention process and shows that it allows for early detection of cardiovascular diseases. In Poland, ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients are identified in the ambulance that reduces time to door-to-balloon.

          Most cited references36

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          ACC/AHA 2007 guidelines for the management of patients with unstable angina/non-ST-Elevation myocardial infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Revise the 2002 Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Unstable Angina/Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction) developed in collaboration with the American College of Emergency Physicians, the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons endorsed by the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation and the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

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            System delay and mortality among patients with STEMI treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

            Timely reperfusion therapy is recommended for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), and door-to-balloon delay has been proposed as a performance measure in triaging patients for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, focusing on the time from first contact with the health care system to the initiation of reperfusion therapy (system delay) may be more relevant, because it constitutes the total time to reperfusion modifiable by the health care system. No previous studies have focused on the association between system delay and outcome in patients with STEMI treated with primary PCI. To evaluate the associations between system, treatment, patient, and door-to-balloon delays and mortality in patients with STEMI. Historical follow-up study based on population-based Danish medical registries of patients with STEMI transported by the emergency medical service and treated with primary PCI from January 1, 2002, to December 31, 2008, at 3 high-volume PCI centers in Western Denmark. Patients (N = 6209) underwent primary PCI within 12 hours of symptom onset. The median follow-up time was 3.4 (interquartile range, 1.8-5.2) years. Crude and adjusted hazard ratios of mortality obtained by Cox proportional regression analysis. A system delay of 0 through 60 minutes (n = 347) corresponded to a long-term mortality rate of 15.4% (n = 43); a delay of 61 through 120 minutes (n = 2643) to a rate of 23.3% (n = 380); a delay of 121 through 180 minutes (n = 2092) to a rate of 28.1% (n = 378); and a delay of 181 through 360 minutes (n = 1127) to a rate of 30.8% (n = 275) (P < .001). In multivariable analysis adjusted for other predictors of mortality, system delay was independently associated with mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.10 [95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.16] per 1-hour delay), as was its components, prehospital system delay and door-to-balloon delay. System delay was associated with mortality in patients with STEMI treated with primary PCI.
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              ACC/AHA guidelines for the management of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction--executive summary. A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to revise the 1999 guidelines for the management of patients with acute myocardial infarction).


                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                08 August 2016
                : 12
                : 1223-1229
                [1 ]Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Nicolas Copernicus University in Toruń
                [2 ]Department of General Surgery, 10th Military Hospital, Bydgoszcz, Poland
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Anna Rosiek, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Nicolas Copernicus University in Toruń, Przodowników Pracy 8/7, 85-843 Bydgoszcz, Poland, Tel/fax +48 52 381 4772, Email ania.rosiek@ 123456wp.pl
                © 2016 Rosiek and Leksowski. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.


                electrical intervention,chest pain,health care delivery,diagnostics,signal transmission,death prevention


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