+1 Recommend
0 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Mechanism of tacrolimus-induced chronic renal fibrosis following transplantation is regulated by ox-LDL and its receptor, LOX-1

      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          Chronic renal allograft dysfunction (CRAD) is the most common cause of graft failure following renal transplantation. However, the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. Immunosuppressants and hyperlipidemia are associated with renal fibrosis following long-term use. The present study aimed to determine the effects of tacrolimus (FK506) and lipid metabolism disorder on CRAD. In vitro and in vivo models were used for this investigation. Cells of the mouse proximal renal tubular epithelial cell strain, NRK-52E, were cultured either with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), FK506, ox-LDL combined with FK506, or vehicle, respectively. Changes in cell morphology and changes in the levels of lectin-like ox-LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1), reactive oxygen species (ROS), hydrogen peroxide and fibrosis-associated genes were evaluated at 24, 48 and 72 h. In separate experiment, total of 60 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into four groups, which included a high-fat group, FK506 group, high-fat combined with FK506 group, and control group. After 2, 4 and 8 weeks, the serum lipid levels, the levels of ox-LDL, ROS, and the expression levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and connective tissue growth factor were determined. The in vitro and in vivo models revealed that lipid metabolism disorder and FK506 caused oxidative stress and a fibrogenic response. In addition, decreased levels of LOX-1 markedly reduced the levels of TGF-β1 in the in vitro model. Taken together, FK506 and dyslipidemia were found to be associated with CRAD following transplantation.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 31

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          LOX-1, the receptor for oxidized low-density lipoprotein identified from endothelial cells: implications in endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis.

          Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-1 (LOX-1) was initially identified as the major receptor for oxidized LDL (OxLDL) in endothelial cells. Its inducible expression in macrophages and smooth muscle cell was also observed. LOX-1 is a Type II membrane protein with a typical C-type lectin structure at the extracellular C-terminus. It can be cleaved by an unknown protease at the extracellular juxtamembrane region to release the soluble form of LOX-1. The extracellular domains of LOX-1 are post-translationally modified by N-linked glycosylation. Mutagenesis studies revealed that the lectin domain of LOX-1 is the functional domain that recognizes the LOX-1 ligand. The C-terminal end residues and several conserved positively charged residues spanning the lectin domain are essential for OxLDL binding. LOX-1 activation by OxLDL causes endothelial changes that are characterized by activation of nuclear factor-kappaB through an increased reactive oxygen species, subsequent induction of adhesion molecules, and endothelial apoptosis. In vitro, expression of LOX-1 is induced by many inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress, hemodynamic stimuli, and OxLDL. In vivo, the expression is enhanced in pro-atherogenic settings including, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes, and, indeed, is accumulated in the atherosclerotic and glomerulosclerotic lesions. LOX-1 binds multiple classes of ligands that are implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Besides OxLDL, LOX-1 can recognize apoptotic/aged cells, activated platelets, and bacteria, implying versatile physiological functions. Taken together, all these findings support the possible contribution of LOX-1 to the pathogenesis of vascular disorders, particularly atherosclerosis. Development of antagonists for LOX-1 might be a good therapeutic approach to vascular diseases.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Expression of lectinlike oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 in human atherosclerotic lesions.

            Oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL) seems to play key roles in atherogenesis. Lectinlike Ox-LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1) is a recently identified cell-surface receptor for Ox-LDL. The relationship of this novel receptor for Ox-LDL to atherogenesis, however, has not yet been clarified. In this study, we explored the expression of LOX-1 in the atherosclerotic lesions of human carotid arteries. Using carotid endarterectomy specimens obtained from 21 patients and 2 samples of normal human aortas, we examined LOX-1 expression by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. In aortas without atherosclerosis, LOX-1 expression was undetectable by immunohistochemistry and negligible by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. In carotid arteries, luminal endothelial cells covering early atherosclerotic lesions were more frequently positive for LOX-1 expression than those in advanced atherosclerotic lesions. Endothelial cells in the intimal neovasculature of advanced lesions also expressed LOX-1. In addition, macrophages and smooth muscle cells in the intima of advanced atherosclerotic plaques were positive for LOX-1 expression. LOX-1 may play important roles in Ox-LDL uptake and subsequent functional alteration in the luminal endothelium in early atherosclerotic lesions and in intimal neovascular endothelial cells in advanced plaques. Furthermore, LOX-1 may also be involved in Ox-LDL uptake and subsequent foam cell transformation in macrophages and smooth muscle cells in the atherosclerotic intima.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Calcineurin inhibitor minimization in the Symphony study: observational results 3 years after transplantation.

              The Symphony study showed that at 1 year posttransplant, a regimen based on daclizumab induction, 2 g mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), low-dose tacrolimus and steroids resulted in better renal function and lower acute rejection and graft loss rates compared with three other regimens: two with low-doses of cyclosporine or sirolimus instead of tacrolimus and one with no induction and standard cyclosporine dosage. This is an observational follow-up for 2 additional years with the same endpoints as the core study. Overall, 958 patients participated in the follow-up. During the study, many patients changed their immunosuppressive regimen (e.g. switched from sirolimus to tacrolimus), but the vast majority (95%) remained on MMF. During the follow-up, renal function remained stable (mean change: -0.6 ml/min), and rates of death, graft loss and acute rejection were low (all about 1% per year). The MMF and low-dose tacrolimus arm continued to have the highest GFR (68.6 +/- 23.8 ml/min vs. 65.9 +/- 26.2 ml/min in the standard-dose cyclosporine, 64.0 +/- 23.1 ml/min in the low-dose cyclosporine and 65.3 +/- 26.2 ml/min in the low-dose sirolimus arm), but the difference with the other arms was not significant (p = 0.17 in an overall test and 0.077, 0.039 and 0.11, respectively, in pair-wise tests). The MMF and low-dose tacrolimus arm also had the highest graft survival rate, but with reduced differences between groups over time, and the least acute rejection rate. In the Symphony study, the largest ever prospective study in de novo kidney transplantation, over 3 years, daclizumab induction, MMF, steroids and low-dose tacrolimus proved highly efficacious, without the negative effects on renal function commonly reported for standard CNI regimens.

                Author and article information

                Mol Med Rep
                Mol Med Rep
                Molecular Medicine Reports
                D.A. Spandidos
                November 2016
                13 September 2016
                13 September 2016
                : 14
                : 5
                : 4124-4134
                [1 ]Department of Urology, Institute of Urology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, P.R. China
                [2 ]Key Laboratory of Transplant Engineering and Immunology, Ministry of Health, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, P.R. China
                [3 ]Department of Pathology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, P.R. China
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Professor Peng Zhang, Department of Urology, Institute of Urology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, 37 Guoxuexiang Street, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, P.R. China, E-mail: zhangpenghuaxi@

                Contributed equally

                Copyright: © Deng et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.



                Comment on this article