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      Disinhibition of negative true self for identity reconstructions in cyberspace: Advancing self-discrepancy theory for virtual setting

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          Abstract

          In face-to-face communications, to avoid sanctions and disapproval from others, people are more likely to hide negative aspects of their true self (such as socially undesirable personalities, minds, beliefs and consciousness) to avoid conflict with social norms and laws. The anonymity of cyberspace provides people a unique environment to behave more freely and openly with less restraint from the real word. Existing research related to online true self expression has mainly explored true self as an independent aspect of self. Regarding true self as a two-dimensional concept, this study investigates true self from the perspective of individuals’ self-guide and identity reconstruction in both online and offline world. Using qualitative research methods, the current study investigates 57 participants through interviews and questionnaires. Content analysis reveals four factors that motivate people to express more true self (especially negative true self) when reconstructing their online identity and involve true self as a part of their self-guide in anonymous environment. By incorporating true self as an important part of individuals' self-guide and identity online, the current study advances self-discrepancy theory, making it more comprehensive for cyberspace. The results are also interpreted based on self-determination theory. The theoretical contributions of this study are discussed and practical implications are also presented.

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          Most cited references 59

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          CRACM1 is a plasma membrane protein essential for store-operated Ca2+ entry.

           M Vig,  C. Peinelt,  A. Beck (2006)
          Store-operated Ca2+ entry is mediated by Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels following Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. We performed a genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screen in Drosophila cells to identify proteins that inhibit store-operated Ca2+ influx. A secondary patch-clamp screen identified CRACM1 and CRACM2 (CRAC modulators 1 and 2) as modulators of Drosophila CRAC currents. We characterized the human ortholog of CRACM1, a plasma membrane-resident protein encoded by gene FLJ14466. Although overexpression of CRACM1 did not affect CRAC currents, RNAi-mediated knockdown disrupted its activation. CRACM1 could be the CRAC channel itself, a subunit of it, or a component of the CRAC signaling machinery.
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            The internet and social life.

            The Internet is the latest in a series of technological breakthroughs in interpersonal communication, following the telegraph, telephone, radio, and television. It combines innovative features of its predecessors, such as bridging great distances and reaching a mass audience. However, the Internet has novel features as well, most critically the relative anonymity afforded to users and the provision of group venues in which to meet others with similar interests and values. We place the Internet in its historical context, and then examine the effects of Internet use on the user's psychological well-being, the formation and maintenance of personal relationships, group memberships and social identity, the workplace, and community involvement. The evidence suggests that while these effects are largely dependent on the particular goals that users bring to the interaction-such as self-expression, affiliation, or competition-they also interact in important ways with the unique qualities of the Internet communication situation.
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              Assessing psychopathic attributes in a noninstitutionalized population.

              The present study examined antisocial dispositions in 487 university students. Primary and secondary psychopathy scales were developed to assess a protopsychopathic interpersonal philosophy. An antisocial action scale also was developed for purposes of validation. The primary, secondary, and antisocial action scales were correlated with each other and with boredom susceptibility and disinhibition but not with experience seeking and thrill and adventure seeking. Secondary psychopathy was associated with trait anxiety. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the strongest predictors of antisocial action were disinhibition, primary psychopathy, secondary psychopathy, and sex, whereas thrill and adventure seeking was a negative predictor. This argues against a singular behavioral inhibition system mediating both antisocial and risk-taking behavior. These findings are also consistent with the view that psychopathy is a continuous dimension.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                11 April 2017
                2017
                : 12
                : 4
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institute of Graduate Studies, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
                [2 ]Asia-Europe Institute, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
                [3 ]Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
                University of Texas at San Antonio, UNITED STATES
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                • Conceptualization: CH SK JH KR.

                • Data curation: CH SK JH KR.

                • Formal analysis: CH SK JH KR.

                • Funding acquisition: SK KR.

                • Investigation: CH JH.

                • Methodology: CH SK JH KR.

                • Project administration: SK KR.

                • Resources: CH SK JH KR.

                • Supervision: SK KR.

                • Validation: CH SK JH KR.

                • Visualization: CH SK JH KR.

                • Writing – original draft: CH SK JH KR.

                • Writing – review & editing: CH SK JH KR.

                Article
                PONE-D-16-24145
                10.1371/journal.pone.0175623
                5388501
                28399153
                f229ce9e-a39d-40b3-b660-393ca395d4be
                © 2017 Hu et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, Pages: 19
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100004386, Universiti Malaya;
                Award ID: UM.C/625/1/HIR/MOHE/SC/13/3
                The study is supported by University of Malaya grant UM.C/625/1/HIR/MOHE/SC/13/3 ( http://hir.um.edu.my//). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
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