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      Preparation of epigallocatechin gallate-loaded nanoparticles and characterization of their inhibitory effects on Helicobacter pylori growth in vitro and in vivo

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          Abstract

          A variety of approaches have been proposed for overcoming the unpleasant side effects associated with antibiotics treatment of Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori) infections. Research has shown that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major ingredient in green tea, has antibacterial activity for antiurease activity against H. pylori. Oral EGCG is not good because of its digestive instability and the fact that it often cannot reach the targeted site of antibacterial activity. To localize EGCG to H. pylori infection site, this study developed a fucose–chitosan/gelatin nanoparticle to encapsulate EGCG at the target and make direct contact with the region of microorganisms on the gastric epithelium. Analysis of a simulated gastrointestinal medium indicated that the proposed in vitro nanocarrier system effectively controls the release of EGCG, which interacts directly with the intercellular space at the site of H. pylori infection. Meanwhile, results of in vivo clearance assays indicated that our prepared fucose–chitosan/gelatin/EGCG nanoparticles had a significantly greater H. pylori clearance effect and more effectively reduced H. pylori-associated gastric inflammation in the gastric-infected mouse model than the EGCG solution alone.

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          Most cited references 103

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          Clinical relevance of the cagA, vacA, and iceA status of Helicobacter pylori.

          Clinical outcome of Helicobacter pylori infection may be associated with specific virulence-associated bacterial genotypes. The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between H. pylori cagA, vacA, and iceA status and severity of disease. Gastric biopsy specimens from 94 patients in The Netherlands were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and reverse hybridization. cagA was present in 63 (67%) of 94 cases and was associated with peptic ulcer disease (P = 0.0019). vacA geno-types s1a/m1, s1b/m2, s1b/m1, s1b/m2, and s2/m2 were found in 36.2%, 23.4%, 2.1%, 5.3%, and 20.2%, respectively. Ten isolates (10.6%) contained multiple vacA genotypes. The presence of peptic ulcers was associated with type s1 strains (P = 0.0006) but not with the m type (P = 0.2035). cagA and vacA s1 were strongly associated (P < 10(-5)). iceA1 was found in 53 (56.4%) and iceA2 in 25 (26.6%) of the 94 cases. In 14 isolates (14.9%), both iceA alleles were found, and 2 (2.1%) were negative for both iceA1 and iceA2. iceA1 was also associated with peptic ulcer disease (P = 0.0042). The iceA allelic type was independent of the cagA and vacA status. vacA s1, cagA, and iceA1 are markers of H. pylori strains that are more likely to lead to ulcer disease.
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            Endotoxin recognition and signal transduction by the TLR4/MD2-complex.

            Bacterial lipopolysaccharides are recognized in mammals by a receptor complex composed of CD14, Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 and MD-2. Transduction of signaling is achieved following the recruitment of a combination of four Toll-interleukin-1 resistance (TIR)-domain-containing adapter molecules, which provide a structural platform enabling the recruitment and activation of downstream effectors essential for pathway-specific transcription factor activation and inflammatory gene expression.
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              Layer-by-Layer-Coated Gelatin Nanoparticles as a Vehicle for Delivery of Natural Polyphenols.

              Natural polyphenols with previously demonstrated anticancer potential, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), tannic acid, curcumin, and theaflavin, were encased into gelatin-based 200 nm nanoparticles consisting of a soft gel-like interior with or without a surrounding LbL shell of polyelectrolytes (polystyrene sulfonate/polyallylamine hydrochloride, polyglutamic acid/poly-l-lysine, dextran sulfate/protamine sulfate, carboxymethyl cellulose/gelatin, type A) assembled using the layer-by-layer technique. The characteristics of polyphenol loading and factors affecting their release from the nanocapsules were investigated. Nanoparticle-encapsulated EGCG retained its biological activity and blocked hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-induced intracellular signaling in the breast cancer cell line MBA-MD-231 as potently as free EGCG.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sci Technol Adv Mater
                Sci Technol Adv Mater
                TSTA
                Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
                Taylor & Francis
                1468-6996
                1878-5514
                August 2014
                5 August 2014
                : 15
                : 4
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Biological Science and Technology, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
                [2 ]Division of Hepatogastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan
                [3 ]Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
                [4 ]Bio-Medical Carbon Technology Co., Ltd, Taichung, Taiwan
                Author notes
                Article
                TSTA11661202
                10.1088/1468-6996/15/4/045006
                5090695
                © 2014 National Institute for Materials Science

                Content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI.

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