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      Multiparametric and semiquantitative scoring systems for the evaluation of mouse model histopathology - a systematic review

      , 1

      BMC Veterinary Research

      BioMed Central

      Score, Semiquantitative, Histopathology, Colitis, Nephritis, Hepatitis, Encephalitis

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          Histopathology has initially been and is still used to diagnose infectious, degenerative or neoplastic diseases in humans or animals. In addition to qualitative diagnoses semiquantitative scoring of a lesion`s magnitude on an ordinal scale is a commonly demanded task for histopathologists. Multiparametric, semiquantitative scoring systems for mouse models histopathology are a common approach to handle these questions and to include histopathologic information in biomedical research.


          Inclusion criteria for scoring systems were a first description of a multiparametric, semiquantiative scoring systems which comprehensibly describe an approach to evaluate morphologic lesion. A comprehensive literature search using these criteria identified 153 originally designed semiquantitative scoring systems for the analysis of morphologic changes in mouse models covering almost all organs systems and a wide variety of disease models. Of these, colitis, experimental autoimmune encephalitis, lupus nephritis and collagen induced osteoarthritis colitis were the disease models with the largest number of different scoring systems. Closer analysis of the identified scoring systems revealed a lack of a rationale for the selection of the scoring parameters or a correlation between scoring parameter value and the magnitude of the clinical symptoms in most studies.


          Although a decision for a particular scoring system is clearly dependent on the respective scientific question this review gives an overview on currently available systems and may therefore allow for a better choice for the respective project.

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          Most cited references 120

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          Histological grading and staging of chronic hepatitis.

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            Clinicopathologic study of dextran sulfate sodium experimental murine colitis.

            We undertook this study in order to fully characterize the clinical and histopathology features of the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) model of experimental murine colitis and to discover the earliest histopathologic changes that lead to colitis. Acute colitis was induced in Swiss-Webster mice by 7 days of oral DSS with animals sacrificed daily. Chronic colitis was induced by: (a) 7 days of oral DSS followed by 7 days of H2O (for 1, 2, and 3 cycles) and (b) 7 days of oral DSS followed by 14 and 21 days of H2O. In each experimental group, the entire colons were examined histologically and correlated with clinical symptoms. Acute clinical symptoms (diarrhea and/or grossly bloody stool) were associated with the presence of erosions and inflammation. More importantly, the earliest histologic changes which predated clinical colitis was loss of the basal one-third of the crypt (day 3), which progressed with time to loss of the entire crypt resulting in erosions on day 5. The earliest changes were very focal and not associated with inflammation. Inflammation was a secondary phenomena and only became significant after erosions appeared. Animals treated with only 7 days of DSS followed by 14 and 21 days of H2O developed a chronic colitis with the following histologic features: areas of activity (erosions and inflammation), inactivity, crypt distortion, florid epithelial proliferation and possible dysplasia. These changes were similar to animals given 3 cycles of DSS. The clinical disease activity index correlated significantly with pathologic changes in both the acute and chronic phases of the disease. The mechanism of DSS colitis is presently unknown. However, the finding of crypt loss without proceeding or accompanying inflammation suggests that the initial insult is at the level of the epithelial cell with inflammation being a secondary phenomena. This may be a good model to study how early mucosal changes lead to inflammation and the biology of the colonic enterocyte. Chronic colitis induced after only 7 days of DSS may serve as a useful model to study the effects of pharmacologic agents in human inflammatory disease and mechanisms of perpetuation of inflammation. Finally, we believe that this model has the potential to study the dysplasia cancer sequence in inflammatory disease.
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              The Banff 97 working classification of renal allograft pathology.

              Standardization of renal allograft biopsy interpretation is necessary to guide therapy and to establish an objective end point for clinical trials. This manuscript describes a classification, Banff 97, developed by investigators using the Banff Schema and the Collaborative Clinical Trials in Transplantation (CCTT) modification for diagnosis of renal allograft pathology. Banff 97 grew from an international consensus discussion begun at Banff and continued via the Internet. This schema developed from (a) analysis of data using the Banff classification, (b) publication of and experience with the CCTT modification, (c) international conferences, and (d) data from recent studies on impact of vasculitis on transplant outcome. Semiquantitative lesion scoring continues to focus on tubulitis and arteritis but includes a minimum threshold for interstitial inflammation. Banff 97 defines "types" of acute/active rejection. Type I is tubulointerstitial rejection without arteritis. Type II is vascular rejection with intimal arteritis, and type III is severe rejection with transmural arterial changes. Biopsies with only mild inflammation are graded as "borderline/suspicious for rejection." Chronic/sclerosing allograft changes are graded based on severity of tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. Antibody-mediated rejection, hyperacute or accelerated acute in presentation, is also categorized, as are other significant allograft findings. The Banff 97 working classification refines earlier schemas and represents input from two classifications most widely used in clinical rejection trials and in clinical practice worldwide. Major changes include the following: rejection with vasculitis is separated from tubulointerstitial rejection; severe rejection requires transmural changes in arteries; "borderline" rejection can only be interpreted in a clinical context; antibody-mediated rejection is further defined, and lesion scoring focuses on most severely involved structures. Criteria for specimen adequacy have also been modified. Banff 97 represents a significant refinement of allograft assessment, developed via international consensus discussions.

                Author and article information

                BMC Vet Res
                BMC Vet. Res
                BMC Veterinary Research
                BioMed Central
                21 June 2013
                : 9
                : 123
                [1 ]Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany
                Copyright ©2013 Klopfleisch; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Research Article

                Veterinary medicine

                encephalitis, hepatitis, nephritis, colitis, histopathology, semiquantitative, score


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