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      The cross-category effect: mere social categorization is sufficient to elicit an own-group bias in face recognition.

      Psychological Science

      Analysis of Variance, Cognition, physiology, Continental Population Groups, psychology, Face, Female, Humans, Male, Peer Group, Prejudice, Recognition (Psychology), Social Perception, Students

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          Abstract

          Although the cross-race effect (CRE) is a well-established phenomenon, both perceptual-expertise and social-categorization models have been proposed to explain the effect. The two studies reported here investigated the extent to which categorizing other people as in-group versus out-group members is sufficient to elicit a pattern of face recognition analogous to that of the CRE, even when perceptual expertise with the stimuli is held constant. In Study 1, targets were categorized as members of real-life in-groups and out-groups (based on university affiliation), whereas in Study 2, targets were categorized into experimentally created minimal groups. In both studies, recognition performance was better for targets categorized as in-group members, despite the fact that perceptual expertise was equivalent for in-group and out-group faces. These results suggest that social-cognitive mechanisms of in-group and out-group categorization are sufficient to elicit performance differences for in-group and out-group face recognition.

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          Journal
          17680942
          10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01964.x

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