With very few adjuvants currently being used in marketed human vaccines, a critical need exists for novel immunopotentiators and delivery vehicles capable of eliciting humoral, cellular and mucosal immunity. Such crucial vaccine components could facilitate the development of novel vaccines for viral and parasitic infections, such as hepatitis, HIV, malaria, cancer, etc. In this review, we discuss clinical trial results for various vaccine adjuvants and delivery vehicles being developed that are approximately nanoscale (< 1000 nm) in size. Humoral immune responses have been observed for most adjuvants and delivery platforms while only viral vectors, ISCOMs and Montanide™ ISA 51 and 720 have shown cytotoxic T cell responses in the clinic. MF59 and MPL® have elicited Th1 responses, and virus-like particles, non-degradable nanoparticles and liposomes have also generated cellular immunity. Such vaccine components have also been evaluated for alternative routes of administration with clinical successes reported for intranasal delivery of viral vectors and proteosomes and oral delivery of a VLP vaccine.