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      Nanotechnology in vaccine delivery


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          With very few adjuvants currently being used in marketed human vaccines, a critical need exists for novel immunopotentiators and delivery vehicles capable of eliciting humoral, cellular and mucosal immunity. Such crucial vaccine components could facilitate the development of novel vaccines for viral and parasitic infections, such as hepatitis, HIV, malaria, cancer, etc. In this review, we discuss clinical trial results for various vaccine adjuvants and delivery vehicles being developed that are approximately nanoscale (< 1000 nm) in size. Humoral immune responses have been observed for most adjuvants and delivery platforms while only viral vectors, ISCOMs and Montanide™ ISA 51 and 720 have shown cytotoxic T cell responses in the clinic. MF59 and MPL® have elicited Th1 responses, and virus-like particles, non-degradable nanoparticles and liposomes have also generated cellular immunity. Such vaccine components have also been evaluated for alternative routes of administration with clinical successes reported for intranasal delivery of viral vectors and proteosomes and oral delivery of a VLP vaccine.

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          Sustained efficacy up to 4.5 years of a bivalent L1 virus-like particle vaccine against human papillomavirus types 16 and 18: follow-up from a randomised control trial.

          Effective vaccination against HPV 16 and HPV 18 to prevent cervical cancer will require a high level of sustained protection against infection and precancerous lesions. Our aim was to assess the long-term efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of a bivalent HPV-16/18 L1 virus-like particle AS04 vaccine against incident and persistent infection with HPV 16 and HPV 18 and their associated cytological and histological outcomes. We did a follow-up study of our multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial reported in 2004. We included women who originally received all three doses of bivalent HPV-16/18 virus-like particle AS04 vaccine (0.5 mL; n=393) or placebo (n=383). We assessed HPV DNA, using cervical samples, and did yearly cervical cytology assessments. We also studied the long-term immunogenicity and safety of the vaccine. More than 98% seropositivity was maintained for HPV-16/18 antibodies during the extended follow-up phase. We noted significant vaccine efficacy against HPV-16 and HPV-18 endpoints: incident infection, 96.9% (95% CI 81.3-99.9); persistent infection: 6 month definition, 94.3 (63.2-99.9); 12 month definition, 100% (33.6-100). In a combined analysis of the initial efficacy and extended follow-up studies, vaccine efficacy of 100% (42.4-100) against cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) lesions associated with vaccine types. We noted broad protection against cytohistological outcomes beyond that anticipated for HPV 16/18 and protection against incident infection with HPV 45 and HPV 31. The vaccine has a good long-term safety profile. Up to 4.5 years, the HPV-16/18 L1 virus-like particle AS04 vaccine is highly immunogenic and safe, and induces a high degree of protection against HPV-16/18 infection and associated cervical lesions. There is also evidence of cross protection.
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            Efficacy of a bivalent L1 virus-like particle vaccine in prevention of infection with human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 in young women: a randomised controlled trial

            Vaccination against the most common oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types, HPV-16 and HPV-18, could prevent development of up to 70% of cervical cancers worldwide. We did a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial to assess the efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of a bivalent HPV-16/18 L1 virus-like particle vaccine for the prevention of incident and persistent infection with these two virus types, associated cervical cytological abnormalities, and precancerous lesions. We randomised 1113 women between 15-25 years of age to receive three doses of either the vaccine formulated with AS04 adjuvant or placebo on a 0 month, 1 month, and 6 month schedule in North America and Brazil. Women were assessed for HPV infection by cervical cytology and self-obtained cervicovaginal samples for up to 27 months, and for vaccine safety and immunogenicity. In the according-to-protocol analyses, vaccine efficacy was 91.6% (95% CI 64.5-98.0) against incident infection and 100% against persistent infection (47.0-100) with HPV-16/18. In the intention-to-treat analyses, vaccine efficacy was 95.1% (63.5-99.3) against persistent cervical infection with HPV-16/18 and 92.9% (70.0-98.3) against cytological abnormalities associated with HPV-16/18 infection. The vaccine was generally safe, well tolerated, and highly immunogenic. The bivalent HPV vaccine was efficacious in prevention of incident and persistent cervical infections with HPV-16 and HPV-18, and associated cytological abnormalities and lesions. Vaccination against such infections could substantially reduce incidence of cervical cancer.
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              Prophylactic quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, and 18) L1 virus-like particle vaccine in young women: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled multicentre phase II efficacy trial.

              A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled phase II study was done to assess the efficacy of a prophylactic quadrivalent vaccine targeting the human papillomavirus (HPV) types associated with 70% of cervical cancers (types 16 and 18) and with 90% of genital warts (types 6 and 11). 277 young women (mean age 20.2 years [SD 1.7]) were randomly assigned to quadrivalent HPV (20 microg type 6, 40 microg type 11, 40 microg type 16, and 20 microg type 18) L1 virus-like-particle (VLP) vaccine and 275 (mean age 20.0 years [1.7]) to one of two placebo preparations at day 1, month 2, and month 6. For 36 months, participants underwent regular gynaecological examinations, cervicovaginal sampling for HPV DNA, testing for serum antibodies to HPV, and Pap testing. The primary endpoint was the combined incidence of infection with HPV 6, 11, 16, or 18, or cervical or external genital disease (ie, persistent HPV infection, HPV detection at the last recorded visit, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, cervical cancer, or external genital lesions caused by the HPV types in the vaccine). Main analyses were done per protocol. Combined incidence of persistent infection or disease with HPV 6, 11, 16, or 18 fell by 90% (95% CI 71-97, p<0.0001) in those assigned vaccine compared with those assigned placebo. A vaccine targeting HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18 could substantially reduce the acquisition of infection and clinical disease caused by common HPV types.

                Author and article information

                Adv Drug Deliv Rev
                Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev
                Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
                Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V
                7 February 2008
                22 May 2008
                7 February 2008
                : 60
                : 8
                : 915-928
                [a ]Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, 66047 USA
                [b ]Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, 66047 USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. 2030 Becker Dr., Lawrence, KS, 66047 USA. Tel.: +1 785 864 1455; fax: +1 785 864 1454. berkland@ 123456ku.edu

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

                : 29 March 2007
                : 1 May 2007

                adjuvant,immunopotentiator,humoral immunity,cellular immunity,immunization,nanoparticle,antigen


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