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      The effect of 10 Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) on corticomuscular coherence

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          Synchronous oscillatory activity at alpha (8–12 Hz), beta (13–30 Hz), and gamma (30–90 Hz) frequencies is assumed to play a key role for motor control. Corticomuscular coherence (CMC) represents an established measure of the pyramidal system's integrity. Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) offers the possibility to modulate ongoing oscillatory activity. Behaviorally, 20 Hz tACS in healthy subjects has been shown to result in movement slowing. However, the neurophysiological changes underlying these effects are not entirely understood yet. The present study aimed at ascertaining the effects of tACS at 10 and 20 Hz in healthy subjects on CMC and local power of the primary sensorimotor cortex. Neuromagnetic activity was recorded during isometric contraction before and at two time points (2–10 min and 30–38 min) after tACS of the left primary motor cortex (M1), using a 306 channel whole head magnetoencephalography (MEG) system. Additionally, electromyography (EMG) of the right extensor digitorum communis (EDC) muscle was measured. TACS was applied at 10 and 20 Hz, respectively, for 10 min at 1 mA. Sham stimulation served as control condition. The data suggest that 10 Hz tACS significantly reduced low gamma band CMC during isometric contraction. This implies that tACS does not necessarily cause effects at stimulation frequency. Rather, the findings suggest cross-frequency interplay between alpha and low gamma band activity modulating functional interaction between motor cortex and muscle.

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          The assessment and analysis of handedness: The Edinburgh inventory

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            FieldTrip: Open Source Software for Advanced Analysis of MEG, EEG, and Invasive Electrophysiological Data

            This paper describes FieldTrip, an open source software package that we developed for the analysis of MEG, EEG, and other electrophysiological data. The software is implemented as a MATLAB toolbox and includes a complete set of consistent and user-friendly high-level functions that allow experimental neuroscientists to analyze experimental data. It includes algorithms for simple and advanced analysis, such as time-frequency analysis using multitapers, source reconstruction using dipoles, distributed sources and beamformers, connectivity analysis, and nonparametric statistical permutation tests at the channel and source level. The implementation as toolbox allows the user to perform elaborate and structured analyses of large data sets using the MATLAB command line and batch scripting. Furthermore, users and developers can easily extend the functionality and implement new algorithms. The modular design facilitates the reuse in other software packages.
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              Magnetoencephalography—theory, instrumentation, and applications to noninvasive studies of the working human brain


                Author and article information

                1Institute of Clinical Neuroscience and Medical Psychology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University Duesseldorf, Germany
                2Department of Neurology, Medical Faculty, Duesseldorf University Hospital Duesseldorf, Germany
                3Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, Goethe-University of Frankfurt am Main Frankfurt am Main, Germany
                4Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Georg-August-University Goettingen, Germany
                Author notes

                Edited by: Ulf Ziemann, Eberhard Karls University Tübingen, Germany

                Reviewed by: Gregor Thut, University of Glasgow, UK; Til O. Bergmann, Radboud University Nijmegen, Netherlands

                *Correspondence: Bettina Pollok, Institute of Clinical Neuroscience and Medical Psychology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University, Universitaetsstr.1, 40225 Duesseldorf, Germany e-mail: bettina.pollok@

                This article was submitted to the journal Frontiers in Human Neuroscience.

                †These authors have contributed equally to this work.

                Front Hum Neurosci
                Front Hum Neurosci
                Front. Hum. Neurosci.
                Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                29 August 2013
                : 7
                Copyright © 2013 Wach, Krause, Moliadze, Paulus, Schnitzler and Pollok.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Figures: 6, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 61, Pages: 10, Words: 7340
                Original Research Article


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