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      Magnetic Nanoparticles in Cancer Theranostics

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          Abstract

          In a report from 2008, The International Agency for Research on Cancer predicted a tripled cancer incidence from 1975, projecting a possible 13-17 million cancer deaths worldwide by 2030. While new treatments are evolving and reaching approval for different cancer types, the main prevention of cancer mortality is through early diagnosis, detection and treatment of malignant cell growth. The last decades have seen a development of new imaging techniques now in widespread clinical use. The development of nano-imaging through fluorescent imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the potential to detect and diagnose cancer at an earlier stage than with current imaging methods. The characteristic properties of nanoparticles result in their theranostic potential allowing for simultaneous detection of and treatment of the disease. This review provides state of the art of the nanotechnological applications for cancer therapy. Furthermore, it advances a novel concept of personalized nanomedical theranostic therapy using iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles in conjunction with MRI imaging. Regulatory and industrial perspectives are also included to outline future perspectives in nanotechnological cancer research.

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          Most cited references 108

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          Semiconductor nanocrystals as fluorescent biological labels.

           M Bruchez,  M Moronne,  P Gin (1998)
          Semiconductor nanocrystals were prepared for use as fluorescent probes in biological staining and diagnostics. Compared with conventional fluorophores, the nanocrystals have a narrow, tunable, symmetric emission spectrum and are photochemically stable. The advantages of the broad, continuous excitation spectrum were demonstrated in a dual-emission, single-excitation labeling experiment on mouse fibroblasts. These nanocrystal probes are thus complementary and in some cases may be superior to existing fluorophores.
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            Design and fabrication of magnetic nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery and imaging.

            Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) represent a class of non-invasive imaging agents that have been developed for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. These MNPs have traditionally been used for disease imaging via passive targeting, but recent advances have opened the door to cellular-specific targeting, drug delivery, and multi-modal imaging by these nanoparticles. As more elaborate MNPs are envisioned, adherence to proper design criteria (e.g. size, coating, molecular functionalization) becomes even more essential. This review summarizes the design parameters that affect MNP performance in vivo, including the physicochemical properties and nanoparticle surface modifications, such as MNP coating and targeting ligand functionalizations that can enhance MNP management of biological barriers. A careful review of the chemistries used to modify the surfaces of MNPs is also given, with attention paid to optimizing the activity of bound ligands while maintaining favorable physicochemical properties. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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              Mechanisms of Nanoparticle-Induced Oxidative Stress and Toxicity

              The rapidly emerging field of nanotechnology has offered innovative discoveries in the medical, industrial, and consumer sectors. The unique physicochemical and electrical properties of engineered nanoparticles (NP) make them highly desirable in a variety of applications. However, these novel properties of NP are fraught with concerns for environmental and occupational exposure. Changes in structural and physicochemical properties of NP can lead to changes in biological activities including ROS generation, one of the most frequently reported NP-associated toxicities. Oxidative stress induced by engineered NP is due to acellular factors such as particle surface, size, composition, and presence of metals, while cellular responses such as mitochondrial respiration, NP-cell interaction, and immune cell activation are responsible for ROS-mediated damage. NP-induced oxidative stress responses are torch bearers for further pathophysiological effects including genotoxicity, inflammation, and fibrosis as demonstrated by activation of associated cell signaling pathways. Since oxidative stress is a key determinant of NP-induced injury, it is necessary to characterize the ROS response resulting from NP. Through physicochemical characterization and understanding of the multiple signaling cascades activated by NP-induced ROS, a systemic toxicity screen with oxidative stress as a predictive model for NP-induced injury can be developed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Theranostics
                Theranostics
                thno
                Theranostics
                Ivyspring International Publisher (Sydney )
                1838-7640
                2015
                1 September 2015
                : 5
                : 11
                : 1249-1263
                Affiliations
                1. School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland
                2. Trinity College Institute of Neuroscience, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland
                3. Department of Clinical Medicine Trinity Centre for Health Science, St. James's Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
                4. Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Dublin, Ireland
                5. Silesian Medical University and Kardio-Med Silesia, Zabrze, Poland
                6. Centre for Research on Adaptive Nanostructures and Nanodevices (CRANN), Trinity College Dublin, Ireland
                Author notes
                ✉ Corresponding authors: Oliviero Gobbo, School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, 152-160 Pearse Street, Dublin 2, Ireland. Tel: +353 1896 3527; Fax: +353 1896 2783. Email: ogobbo@ 123456tcd.ie or Adriele Prina-Mello, Institute of Molecular Medicine, Trinity Centre for Health Sciences, St. James's street, Dublin 8, Ireland. Tel: +353 1 896 3259 / 3087; Fax: +353 1 896 3037. Email: prinamea@ 123456tcd.ie

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interest exists.

                Article
                thnov05p1249
                10.7150/thno.11544
                4568452
                © 2015 Ivyspring International Publisher. Reproduction is permitted for personal, noncommercial use, provided that the article is in whole, unmodified, and properly cited. See http://ivyspring.com/terms for terms and conditions.
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