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      Evaluating the predictive power of circulating tumor cells for the prognosis of transarterial chemoembolization treatment on patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

      , MD a , b , , MD b , , MD c , , MD b , , PhD d ,


      Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

      circulating tumor cells, hepatocellular carcinoma, model, prognosis

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          Explore the predictive power of Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) for evaluating the prognosis of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) treatment on advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients, and use it to construct a prediction model.

          We retrospectively analyzed 43 patients with Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage C HCC who underwent TACE treatment.

          The survival time of 43 advanced HCC patients were 2 to 60 months, with the median survival time of 12 months, 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 42.9%, 9.0%, and 3.6%, respectively. The OS of patients with high level of CTCs before TACE (CTC1 > 2) was significantly lower than that of patients with low level of CTCs (8 vs 12 months, P = .040), but there was no significant difference in PFS between the 2 groups ( P = .926). Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in OS and PFS between patients with high level CTCs and those with low level CTCs at 1 week and 4 weeks after TACE ( P all > .05). In univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis, the number of lesions and CTC before TACE were the independent influencing factors for prognosis in these patients, and the HR was 3.01 and 1.20, respectively (all P < .05). The area under curve of COX regression model to predict OS increased with the increase of follow-up time, ranging from 0.56 to 0.85.

          The CTCs number before TACE is an effective biomarker for predicting the OS of advanced HCC patients. The joint prediction model based on CTCs and tumor number can effectively predict the prognosis of patients with advanced HCC.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Global Cancer Statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN Estimates of Incidence and Mortality Worldwide for 36 Cancers in 185 Countries

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            Sorafenib in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

            No effective systemic therapy exists for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. A preliminary study suggested that sorafenib, an oral multikinase inhibitor of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, the platelet-derived growth factor receptor, and Raf may be effective in hepatocellular carcinoma. In this multicenter, phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 602 patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma who had not received previous systemic treatment to receive either sorafenib (at a dose of 400 mg twice daily) or placebo. Primary outcomes were overall survival and the time to symptomatic progression. Secondary outcomes included the time to radiologic progression and safety. At the second planned interim analysis, 321 deaths had occurred, and the study was stopped. Median overall survival was 10.7 months in the sorafenib group and 7.9 months in the placebo group (hazard ratio in the sorafenib group, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.55 to 0.87; P<0.001). There was no significant difference between the two groups in the median time to symptomatic progression (4.1 months vs. 4.9 months, respectively, P=0.77). The median time to radiologic progression was 5.5 months in the sorafenib group and 2.8 months in the placebo group (P<0.001). Seven patients in the sorafenib group (2%) and two patients in the placebo group (1%) had a partial response; no patients had a complete response. Diarrhea, weight loss, hand-foot skin reaction, and hypophosphatemia were more frequent in the sorafenib group. In patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, median survival and the time to radiologic progression were nearly 3 months longer for patients treated with sorafenib than for those given placebo. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00105443.) 2008 Massachusetts Medical Society
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              A global view of hepatocellular carcinoma: trends, risk, prevention and management

              Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fourth most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Risk factors for HCC include chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C, alcohol addiction, metabolic liver disease (particularly nonalcoholic fatty liver disease) and exposure to dietary toxins such as aflatoxins and aristolochic acid. All these risk factors are potentially preventable, highlighting the considerable potential of risk prevention for decreasing the global burden of HCC. HCC surveillance and early detection increase the chance of potentially curative treatment; however, HCC surveillance is substantially underutilized, even in countries with sufficient medical resources. Early-stage HCC can be treated curatively by local ablation, surgical resection or liver transplantation. Treatment selection depends on tumour characteristics, the severity of underlying liver dysfunction, age, other medical comorbidities, and available medical resources and local expertise. Catheter-based locoregional treatment is used in patients with intermediate-stage cancer. Kinase and immune checkpoint inhibitors have been shown to be effective treatment options in patients with advanced-stage HCC. Together, rational deployment of prevention, attainment of global goals for viral hepatitis eradication, and improvements in HCC surveillance and therapy hold promise for achieving a substantial reduction in the worldwide HCC burden within the next few decades.

                Author and article information

                Medicine (Baltimore)
                Medicine (Baltimore)
                Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (Hagerstown, MD )
                08 January 2021
                08 January 2021
                : 100
                : 1
                [a ]Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing
                [b ]Department of Interventional Radiology
                [c ]Department of Oncology, The Affiliated Wuxi No. 5 People's Hospital of Jiangnan University, Wuxi
                [d ]Department of Infectious diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.
                Author notes
                []Correspondence: Jun Li, Department of Infectious diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, No. 300, Guangzhou road, Nanjing 210029, China (e-mail: dr-lijun@ 123456vip.sina.com ).
                MD-D-20-04561 24060
                Copyright © 2021 the Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License 4.0 (CCBY-NC), where it is permissible to download, share, remix, transform, and buildup the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0

                Funded by: the leading projects of WuXi Technology Bureau
                Award ID: CSZON1612
                Award Recipient : Not Applicable
                Funded by: the scientific research projects of WuXi Health and Family Planning Committee
                Award ID: MS201637
                Award Recipient : Not Applicable
                Research Article
                Observational Study
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