28 July 2017
To analyze the incidence, risk factors, prevention, treatment and outcome of small for size syndrome (SFSS) after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT).
Through-out more than 10 years: During the period from April 2003 to the end of 2013, 174 adult-to-adults LDLT (A-ALDLT) had been performed at National Liver Institute, Menoufiya University, Shibin Elkoom, Egypt. We collected the data of those patients to do this cohort study that is a single-institution retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected database analyzing the incidence, risk factors, prevention, treatment and outcome of SFSS in a period started from the end of 2013 to the end of 2015. The median period of follow-up reached 40.50 m, range (0-144 m).
SFSS was diagnosed in 20 (11.5%) of our recipients. While extra-small graft [small for size graft (SFSG)], portal hypertension, steatosis and left lobe graft were significant predictors of SFSS in univariate analysis ( P = 0.00, 0.04, 0.03, and 0.00 respectively); graft size was the only independent predictor of SFSS on multivariate analysis ( P = 0.03). On the other hand, there was lower incidence of SFSS in patients with SFSG who underwent splenectomy [4/10 (40%) SFSS vs 3/7 (42.9%) no SFSS] but without statistical significance, However, there was none significant lower incidence of the syndrome in patients with right lobe (RL) graft when drainage of the right anterior and/or posterior liver sectors by middle hepatic vein, V5, V8, and/or right inferior vein was done [4/10 (28.6%) SFSS vs 52/152 (34.2%) no SFSS]. The 6-mo, 1-, 3-, 5-, 7- and 10-year survival in patients with SFSS were 30%, 30%, 25%, 25%, 25% and 25% respectively, while, the 6-mo, 1-, 3-, 5-, 7- and 10-year survival in patients without SFSS were 70.1%, 65.6%, 61.7%, 61%, 59.7%, and 59.7% respectively, with statistical significant difference ( P = 0.00).
SFSG is the independent and main factor for occurrence of SFSS after A-ALDLT leading to poor outcome. However, the management of this catastrophe depends upon its prevention ( i.e., selecting graft with proper size, splenectomy to decrease portal venous inflow, and improving hepatic vein outflow by reconstructing large draining veins of the graft).