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      Inhibition of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Migration by Intact Endothelium Is Nitric Oxide-Mediated: Interference by Oxidised Low Density Lipoproteins

      a , b

      Journal of Vascular Research

      S. Karger AG

      Atherosclerosis, Restenosis, Smooth muscle cells

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          Abstract

          Migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) leading to neointimal hyperplasia is an early and cardinal feature of atherogenesis. Migration of rat aortic SMCs from an upper chamber towards a lower one has been studied in a microchemotaxis (Boyden) chamber. Spontaneous migration of SMCs was practically prevented by the presence of endothelium in the lower chamber and was reduced if endothelial cells were substituted with endothelial cell-conditioned medium. Endothelial cells which had been treated with either the inhibitor of protein synthesis cycloheximide or nitric oxide synthesis N<sup>G</sup>-nitro- L-arginine showed no inhibitory effect on SMC migration. Addition of a nitric oxide donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine to cell-free medium in the lower chamber prevented SMC migration. Addition of native LDL to endothelial cells had no effect on SMC migration, while (UV light) oxidised LDL completely abolished the inhibitory effect of endothelial cells on SMC migration. It is concluded that via nitric oxide, endothelium exerts a powerful inhibitory effect on SMC migration. This effect of intact endothelium is completely abolished by oxidised LDL applied in a concentration, which is relevant to those measured in plasma of patients with severe coronary artery disease. It is suggested that oxidised LDL may contribute to the pathogenesis of atherogenesis by stimulating migration of SMCs from media to the intima via abolishing the physiological inhibitory effect of normal endothelium.

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          Most cited references 4

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          Oxidized low density lipoprotein inhibits the migration of aortic endothelial cells in vitro

          Endothelial cell (EC) migration is a critical and initiating event in the formation of new blood vessels and in the repair of injured vessels. Compelling evidence suggests that oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) is present in atherosclerotic lesions, but its role in lesion formation has not been defined. We have examined the role of oxidized LDL in regulating the wound-healing response of vascular EC in vitro. Confluent cultures of bovine aortic EC were "wounded" with a razor, and migration was measured after 18 to 24 h as the number of cells moving into the wounded area and the mean distance of cells from the wound edge. Oxidized LDL markedly reduced migration in a concentration- and oxidation-dependent manner. Native LDL or oxidized LDL with a thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reactivity < 5 nmol malondialdehyde equivalents/mg cholesterol was not inhibitory; however, oxidized LDL with a TBA reactivity of 8-12 inhibited migration by 75- 100%. Inhibition was half-maximal at 250-300 micrograms cholesterol/ml and nearly complete at 350-400 micrograms/ml. The antimigratory activity was not due to cell death since it was completely reversed 16 h after removal of the lipoprotein. The inhibitor molecule was shown to be a lipid; organic solvent extracts of oxidized LDL inhibited migration to nearly the same extent as the intact particle. When LDL was variably oxidized by dialysis against FeSO4 or CuSO4, or by UV irradiation, the inhibitory activity correlated with TBA reactivity and total lipid peroxides, but not with electrophoretic mobility or fluorescence (360 ex/430 em). This indicates that a lipid hydroperoxide may be the active species. These results suggest the possibility that oxidized LDL may limit the healing response of the endothelium after injury.
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            • Abstract: not found
            • Article: not found

            Relation between Activated Smooth-Muscle Cells in Coronary-Artery Lesions and Restenosis after Atherectomy

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              • Record: found
              • Abstract: not found
              • Article: not found

              Mechanisms and prevention of restenosis: from experimental models to clinical practice.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                1998
                June 1998
                09 June 1998
                : 35
                : 3
                : 165-169
                Affiliations
                a Pathopharmacology Unit, The William Harvey Research Institute and b Thrombosis Unit, St. Bartholomew’s Hospital, London, UK
                Article
                25580 J Vasc Res 1998;35:165–169
                10.1159/000025580
                9647330
                © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, References: 21, Pages: 5
                Categories
                Research Paper

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