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      The Role of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Ranibizumab-Treated Choroidal Neovascularization in Choroidal Osteoma

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          Abstract

          In this study, we report the initial evaluation of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to choroidal osteoma and subsequent response to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) treatment monitored with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A). A 38-year-old female presented with an initial visual acuity of 20/150 in the left eye. Clinical examination revealed a choroidal osteoma. OCT demonstrated both subretinal and intraretinal fluid. OCT-A was performed and showed CNV. A course of ten treatments with ranibizumab showed an improvement of visual acuity to 20/30–3, improvement of subretinal and intraretinal fluid, as well as attenuation of CNV. Our report demonstrates OCT-A as a useful tool for both initial evaluation of CNV and following treatment response to anti-VEGF therapy.

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          Most cited references 10

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          Factors predictive of tumor growth, tumor decalcification, choroidal neovascularization, and visual outcome in 74 eyes with choroidal osteoma.

          To evaluate choroidal osteoma for tumor growth, tumor decalcification, related choroidal neovascularization, visual acuity loss, and poor visual acuity. Retrospective nonrandomized single-center case series. Ocular Oncology Service at Wills Eye Hospital, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pa. There were 74 eyes of 61 patients with choroidal osteoma evaluated between January 1, 1977, and January 1, 2003. The 5 outcome measures included tumor growth, tumor decalcification, related choroidal neovascularization, visual acuity loss of 3 or more Snellen lines, and poor visual acuity of 20/200 or worse. At 5 and 10 years, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed tumor growth in 22% and 51% of eyes, tumor decalcification in 28% and 46% of eyes, choroidal neovascularization in 31% and 31% of eyes, visual acuity loss in 26% and 45% of eyes, and poor visual acuity in 45% and 56% of eyes, respectively. The clinical factor predictive of tumor growth was absent overlying retinal pigment epithelial alterations. The factor predictive of decalcification was irregular tumor surface. Of the 15 tumors that showed partial decalcification at the first visit, there was no further tumor growth in any case. Of the remaining 12 tumors that later developed decalcification, tumor growth, if it occurred, was along the margin opposite the decalcification. No tumor showed growth in the region of decalcification. Factors predictive of choroidal neovascularization included irregular tumor surface and subretinal hemorrhage. In 6 eyes that had both choroidal neovascularization and tumor decalcification, the neovascularization was detected prior to or at the same time as the decalcification. The factor predictive of visual acuity loss was presence of subretinal fluid whereas the factors predictive of poor visual acuity included symptoms and tumor decalcification. A comparison of eyes with subfoveal vs extrafoveal choroidal osteoma showed poor visual acuity in 15 (34%) of 44 eyes and 3 (10%) of 30 eyes, respectively. Eyes with decalcified choroidal osteomas manifested poor visual acuity in 13 (48%) of 27 eyes whereas those with nondecalcified tumors showed poor visual acuity in 5 (11%) of 47 eyes. Choroidal osteoma showed evidence of growth in 51% of eyes and decalcification in nearly 50% of eyes by 10 years. Tumors with any degree of decalcification at the initial visit showed no further growth. Overall, poor visual acuity of 20/200 or worse was found in 56% of eyes by 10 years, and decalcified subfoveal choroidal osteomas displayed a particularly poor visual prognosis.
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            Review of spectral domain-enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography of tumors of the retina and retinal pigment epithelium in children and adults

            Background: Spectral domain (SD) enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) is a useful tool for anatomic, cross-sectional imaging of retinal conditions. Aims: The aim was to identify characteristic patterns of retinal and retinal pigment epithelial tumors on EDI-OCT in children and adults. Settings and Design: Retrospective review. Materials and Methods: Analysis of published reports and personal observations using office-based EDI-OCT for adults and portable hand-held SD OCT for infants and children. Results: Using EDI-OCT, retinal tumors such as small retinoblastoma, astrocytic hamartoma, and hemangioblastoma arose abruptly from the retina, immediately adjacent to normal retina. Small exophytic retinoblastoma and retinal hemangioblastoma showed the full-thickness, homogeneous retinal disorganization with surrounding normal retina “draping” over the margins. Retinoblastoma occasionally had intralesional cavities and surrounding subretinal fluid. Hemangioblastoma often had adjacent intraretinal edema and subretinal fluid. Astrocytic hamartoma arose within the nerve fiber layer and sometimes with a “moth-eaten” or cavitary appearance. Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) lesions such as congenital hypertrophy of RPE appeared flat with shadowing, occasional subretinal cleft, and abrupt photoreceptor loss. Congenital simple hamartoma showed an abrupt elevation from the inner retina with crisp, dark posterior shadowing. Combined hamartoma of the retina/RPE showed vitreoretinal traction causing “sawtooth mini-peak” or gently “maxi-peak” folding of the retina. RPE adenoma often produces remote macular edema or epiretinal membrane and the tumor has an irregular, “rugged” surface with deep shadowing. Conclusions: Enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography shows characteristic patterns that are suggestive of certain retinal and RPE tumors.
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              Review of Choroidal Osteomas

              Choroidal osteomas are rare benign ossifying tumors that appear as irregular slightly elevated, yellow-white, juxtapapillary, choroidal mass with well-defined geographic borders, depigmentation of the overlying pigment epithelium; and with multiple small vascular networks on the tumor surface. Visual loss results from three mechanisms: Atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium overlying a decalcified osteoma; serous retinal detachment over the osteoma from decompensated retinal pigment epithelium, and most commonly from choroidal neovascularization. Recent evidence points to the beneficial effects of intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor antagonists in improving visual acuity in serous retinal detachment with or without choroidal neovascularization.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                COP
                COP
                10.1159/issn.1663-2699
                Case Reports in Ophthalmology
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2699
                2020
                May – August 2020
                17 July 2020
                : 11
                : 2
                : 370-376
                Affiliations
                Department of Ophthalmology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USA
                Author notes
                *Manjot K. Gill, Department of Ophthalmology, Northwestern University, 645 N. Michigan Avenue, Suite 440, Chicago, IL 60611 (USA), mgill@nm.org
                Article
                508032 PMC7443623 Case Rep Ophthalmol 2020;11:370–376
                10.1159/000508032
                PMC7443623
                32884552
                © 2020 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Case Report

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