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      Mobile gaming and problematic smartphone use: A comparative study between Belgium and Finland


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          Background and aims

          Gaming applications have become one of the main entertainment features on smartphones, and this could be potentially problematic in terms of dangerous, prohibited, and dependent use among a minority of individuals. A cross-national study was conducted in Belgium and Finland. The aim was to examine the relationship between gaming on smartphones and self-perceived problematic smartphone use via an online survey to ascertain potential predictors.


          The Short Version of the Problematic Mobile Phone Use Questionnaire (PMPUQ-SV) was administered to a sample comprising 899 participants (30% male; age range: 18–67 years).


          Good validity and adequate reliability were confirmed regarding the PMPUQ-SV, especially the dependence subscale, but low prevalence rates were reported in both countries using the scale. Regression analysis showed that downloading, using Facebook, and being stressed contributed to problematic smartphone use. Anxiety emerged as predictor for dependence. Mobile games were used by one-third of the respective populations, but their use did not predict problematic smartphone use. Very few cross-cultural differences were found in relation to gaming through smartphones.


          Findings suggest mobile gaming does not appear to be problematic in Belgium and Finland.

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          Most cited references85

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          The structure of negative emotional states: Comparison of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) with the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories

          The psychometric properties of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) were evaluated in a normal sample of N = 717 who were also administered the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The DASS was shown to possess satisfactory psychometric properties, and the factor structure was substantiated both by exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. In comparison to the BDI and BAI, the DASS scales showed greater separation in factor loadings. The DASS Anxiety scale correlated 0.81 with the BAI, and the DASS Depression scale correlated 0.74 with the BDI. Factor analyses suggested that the BDI differs from the DASS Depression scale primarily in that the BDI includes items such as weight loss, insomnia, somatic preoccupation and irritability, which fail to discriminate between depression and other affective states. The factor structure of the combined BDI and BAI items was virtually identical to that reported by Beck for a sample of diagnosed depressed and anxious patients, supporting the view that these clinical states are more severe expressions of the same states that may be discerned in normals. Implications of the results for the conceptualisation of depression, anxiety and tension/stress are considered, and the utility of the DASS scales in discriminating between these constructs is discussed.
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            Back-Translation for Cross-Cultural Research

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              Psychometric properties of the 42-item and 21-item versions of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales in clinical groups and a community sample.


                Author and article information

                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                J Behav Addict
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                08 January 2018
                March 2018
                : 7
                : 1
                : 88-99
                [ 1 ]International Gaming Research Unit, Psychology Department, Nottingham Trent University , Nottingham, UK
                [ 2 ]Laboratory for Experimental Psychopathology, Institut de recherche en sciences psychologiques, Université catholique de Louvain , Louvain-La-Neuve, Belgium
                [ 3 ]Department of Social Services and Rehabilitation, Oulu University of Applied Sciences , Oulu, Finland
                [ 4 ]Research Unit of Nursing Science and Health Management, Oulu University Hospital, University of Oulu , Oulu, Finland
                [ 5 ]Research Unit of Nursing Science and Health Management, Oulu University Hospital , Oulu, Finland
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Olatz Lopez-Fernandez, PhD; Department of Psychology, Nottingham Trent University, 50 Shakespeare Street, Nottingham NG1 4FQ, UK; Laboratory for Experimental Psychopathology, Université catholique de Louvain, 10 Place du Cardinal Mercier, Louvain-La-Neuve 1348, Belgium; Phone: +44 115 848 2977; E-mails: olatz.lopez-fernandez@ 123456ntu.ac.uk ; lopez.olatz@ 123456gmail.com
                © 2018 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated.

                : 07 August 2017
                : 05 November 2017
                : 24 November 2017
                : 27 November 2017
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 89, Pages: 12
                Funding sources: This work was supported by the European Commission (“Tech Use Disorders;” FP7-PEOPLE-805-2013-IEF-627999) through a grant awarded to OL-F.
                FULL-LENGTH REPORT

                Medicine,Psychology,Social & Behavioral Sciences,Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                smartphone dependence,dangerous smartphone use,cross-cultural study,mobile gaming,problematic mobile phone use,prohibited smartphone use


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