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      Depression, Anxiety, Related Risk Factors and Cognitive Distortion in Korean Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

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          Abstract

          Objective

          To evaluate the severity of depression, anxiety, associated risk factors, and cognitive distortion in Korean patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD).

          Methods

          This study included 369 patients with inflammatory bowel disease. The severity of depression and anxiety was examined using Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The Anxious Thoughts and Tendencies scale was used to measure catastrophizing tendency. Multivariate regression analyses were performed.

          Results

          The predictors of depression were marital status, anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) agent use, age, and body mass index in UC patients and marital status, disease activity, alcohol use, and employment status in CD patients. For anxiety, sex and marital status were the associated factors in UC patients, whereas steroid use was the only significant predictor in CD patients. Comparing the cognitive distortion level, there were no significant differences between UC and CD patients although there was an increasing tendency according to the severity of depression or anxiety.

          Conclusion

          If patients are accompanied by high levels of depression or anxiety and their associated risk factors including TNF-α agent or steroid use, it is recommended that not only symptoms are treated but also cognitive approach and evaluation be performed.

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          Most cited references54

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          The PHQ-9: validity of a brief depression severity measure.

          While considerable attention has focused on improving the detection of depression, assessment of severity is also important in guiding treatment decisions. Therefore, we examined the validity of a brief, new measure of depression severity. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) is a self-administered version of the PRIME-MD diagnostic instrument for common mental disorders. The PHQ-9 is the depression module, which scores each of the 9 DSM-IV criteria as "0" (not at all) to "3" (nearly every day). The PHQ-9 was completed by 6,000 patients in 8 primary care clinics and 7 obstetrics-gynecology clinics. Construct validity was assessed using the 20-item Short-Form General Health Survey, self-reported sick days and clinic visits, and symptom-related difficulty. Criterion validity was assessed against an independent structured mental health professional (MHP) interview in a sample of 580 patients. As PHQ-9 depression severity increased, there was a substantial decrease in functional status on all 6 SF-20 subscales. Also, symptom-related difficulty, sick days, and health care utilization increased. Using the MHP reinterview as the criterion standard, a PHQ-9 score > or =10 had a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 88% for major depression. PHQ-9 scores of 5, 10, 15, and 20 represented mild, moderate, moderately severe, and severe depression, respectively. Results were similar in the primary care and obstetrics-gynecology samples. In addition to making criteria-based diagnoses of depressive disorders, the PHQ-9 is also a reliable and valid measure of depression severity. These characteristics plus its brevity make the PHQ-9 a useful clinical and research tool.
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            The hospital anxiety and depression scale.

            A self-assessment scale has been developed and found to be a reliable instrument for detecting states of depression and anxiety in the setting of an hospital medical outpatient clinic. The anxiety and depressive subscales are also valid measures of severity of the emotional disorder. It is suggested that the introduction of the scales into general hospital practice would facilitate the large task of detection and management of emotional disorder in patients under investigation and treatment in medical and surgical departments.
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              The validity of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. An updated literature review.

              To review the literature of the validity of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). A review of the 747 identified papers that used HADS was performed to address the following questions: (I) How are the factor structure, discriminant validity and the internal consistency of HADS? (II) How does HADS perform as a case finder for anxiety disorders and depression? (III) How does HADS agree with other self-rating instruments used to rate anxiety and depression? Most factor analyses demonstrated a two-factor solution in good accordance with the HADS subscales for Anxiety (HADS-A) and Depression (HADS-D), respectively. The correlations between the two subscales varied from.40 to.74 (mean.56). Cronbach's alpha for HADS-A varied from.68 to.93 (mean.83) and for HADS-D from.67 to.90 (mean.82). In most studies an optimal balance between sensitivity and specificity was achieved when caseness was defined by a score of 8 or above on both HADS-A and HADS-D. The sensitivity and specificity for both HADS-A and HADS-D of approximately 0.80 were very similar to the sensitivity and specificity achieved by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Correlations between HADS and other commonly used questionnaires were in the range.49 to.83. HADS was found to perform well in assessing the symptom severity and caseness of anxiety disorders and depression in both somatic, psychiatric and primary care patients and in the general population.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Psychiatry Investig
                Psychiatry Investig
                PI
                Psychiatry Investigation
                Korean Neuropsychiatric Association
                1738-3684
                1976-3026
                November 2020
                30 October 2020
                : 17
                : 11
                : 1126-1136
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Psychiatry, Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [2 ]Center for Crohn’s and Colitis, Department of Gastroenterology, Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Won Sub Kang, MD, PhD Department of Psychiatry, Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, 23 Kyungheedae-ro Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea Tel: +82-2-958-8551, Fax: +82-2-957-1997, E-mail: menuhinwskang@ 123456khu.ac.kr
                Correspondence: Chang Kyun Lee, MD, PhD Center for Crohn’s and Colitis, Department of Gastroenterology, Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, 23 Kyungheedae-ro Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea Tel: +82-2-958-8258, Fax: +82-2-968-1848, E-mail: gidrlee@ 123456gmail.com
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-8168-3170
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2739-8664
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4382-5876
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9675-4557
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4279-3825
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0495-2861
                Article
                pi-2020-0299
                10.30773/pi.2020.0299
                7711122
                33115188
                f274e5bd-4cf9-4a43-b7ba-5f51cdf2fc82
                Copyright © 2020 Korean Neuropsychiatric Association

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 5 August 2020
                : 8 October 2020
                : 13 October 2020
                Categories
                Original Article

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                depression,anxiety,cognitive distortion,inflammatory bowel disease

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