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      Recent Advances in Biopolymeric Composite Materials for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicines: A Review

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          Abstract

          The polymeric composite material with desirable features can be gained by selecting suitable biopolymers with selected additives to get polymer-filler interaction. Several parameters can be modified according to the design requirements, such as chemical structure, degradation kinetics, and biopolymer composites’ mechanical properties. The interfacial interactions between the biopolymer and the nanofiller have substantial control over biopolymer composites’ mechanical characteristics. This review focuses on different applications of biopolymeric composites in controlled drug release, tissue engineering, and wound healing with considerable properties. The biopolymeric composite materials are required with advanced and multifunctional properties in the biomedical field and regenerative medicines with a complete analysis of routine biomaterials with enhanced biomedical engineering characteristics. Several studies in the literature on tissue engineering, drug delivery, and wound dressing have been mentioned. These results need to be reviewed for possible development and analysis, which makes an essential study.

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          Designing hydrogels for controlled drug delivery

          Hydrogel delivery systems can leverage therapeutically beneficial outcomes of drug delivery and have found clinical use. Hydrogels can provide spatial and temporal control over the release of various therapeutic agents, including small-molecule drugs, macromolecular drugs and cells. Owing to their tunable physical properties, controllable degradability and capability to protect labile drugs from degradation, hydrogels serve as a platform in which various physiochemical interactions with the encapsulated drugs control their release. In this Review, we cover multiscale mechanisms underlying the design of hydrogel drug delivery systems, focusing on physical and chemical properties of the hydrogel network and the hydrogel-drug interactions across the network, mesh, and molecular (or atomistic) scales. We discuss how different mechanisms interact and can be integrated to exert fine control in time and space over the drug presentation. We also collect experimental release data from the literature, review clinical translation to date of these systems, and present quantitative comparisons between different systems to provide guidelines for the rational design of hydrogel delivery systems.
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            Nano based drug delivery systems: recent developments and future prospects

            Nanomedicine and nano delivery systems are a relatively new but rapidly developing science where materials in the nanoscale range are employed to serve as means of diagnostic tools or to deliver therapeutic agents to specific targeted sites in a controlled manner. Nanotechnology offers multiple benefits in treating chronic human diseases by site-specific, and target-oriented delivery of precise medicines. Recently, there are a number of outstanding applications of the nanomedicine (chemotherapeutic agents, biological agents, immunotherapeutic agents etc.) in the treatment of various diseases. The current review, presents an updated summary of recent advances in the field of nanomedicines and nano based drug delivery systems through comprehensive scrutiny of the discovery and application of nanomaterials in improving both the efficacy of novel and old drugs (e.g., natural products) and selective diagnosis through disease marker molecules. The opportunities and challenges of nanomedicines in drug delivery from synthetic/natural sources to their clinical applications are also discussed. In addition, we have included information regarding the trends and perspectives in nanomedicine area.
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              Additive manufacturing (3D printing): A review of materials, methods, applications and challenges

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Molecules
                Molecules
                molecules
                Molecules
                MDPI
                1420-3049
                25 January 2021
                February 2021
                : 26
                : 3
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Polymer Engineering and Technology, University of the Punjab, Lahore 54590, Punjab, Pakistan
                [2 ]School of Biomedical Engineering and Health Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81300, Johor, Malaysia; saifulizwan@ 123456utm.my
                [3 ]School of Biomedical Engineering, Med-X Research Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU), 1954 Huashan Road, Shanghai 200030, China
                [4 ]Centre for Advanced Composite Materials, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81300, Johor, Malaysia
                [5 ]Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Faisal University, P.O. Box 400, Al-Ahsa 31982, Saudi Arabia; walarjan@ 123456kfu.edu.sa (W.S.A.A.); seegasami.samina@ 123456gmail.com (S.N.)
                [6 ]Sustainable and Responsive Manufacturing Group, Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering Technology, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, Melaka 76100, Malacca, Malaysia; anand@ 123456utem.edu.my
                [7 ]Department of Engineering Management, College of Engineering, Prince Sultan University, Rafha Street, P.O. Box 66833, Riyadh 11586, Saudi Arabia; hmehboob@ 123456psu.edu.sa
                [8 ]Department of Biology, College of Sciences, University of Hafr Al Batin, Hafar Al-Batin 39524, Saudi Arabia
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: umar007khan@ 123456gmail.com (M.U.A.K.); rashida@ 123456uhb.edu.sa (R.A.)
                Article
                molecules-26-00619
                10.3390/molecules26030619
                7865423
                33504080
                f2843549-2c9e-4cc3-b54c-e507b89bbcbc
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Review

                biopolymers,composite materials,tissue engineering,regenerative materials,wound dressing

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