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      Oral Active Vitamin D Treatment and Mortality in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients

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          Aims: To analyze the relationship between oral active vitamin D treatment and mortality in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. Methods: We examined the association of oral calcitriol treatment with mortality in 156 MHD patients (80 men and 76 women; mean age: 59 w 15 years). The survival analysis of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality was performed using the Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox proportional-hazards analyses. Results: In all, 108 of the 156 patients received active vitamin D treatment. The intact parathyroid hormone level was obviously lower in the patients who received active vitamin D treatment than in those who did not. Throughout the whole follow-up, overall mortality was 16.7% (26 deaths, 13 in each group). The cardiovascular mortality rates were 14.6% (8/48) in the control group and 4.6% (5/108) in the calcitriol group. The crude analysis of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality using the Kaplan-Meier curve showed a significant reduction in mortality risk for patients who received oral active vitamin D compared with those who did not receive it (p = 0.015 and 0.026, respectively). Cox's regression analysis showed that active vitamin D treatment was associated with a significantly lower risk of all-cause mortality (RR = 0.399, 95% CI 0.185-0.862, p = 0.019) and cardiovascular mortality (RR = 0.295, 95% CI 0.094-0.93, p = 0.037). However, after adjusting for potential confounding variables, oral active vitamin D therapy was no longer clearly associated with a lower risk of either all-cause or cardiovascular mortality. Conclusion: Oral active vitamin D treatment was associated with improved survival in MHD patients. However, this survival benefit was smaller than previously reported, and a large cohort study should be performed. i 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

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          Most cited references 29

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          Clinical epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in chronic renal disease.

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            Vitamin D levels and early mortality among incident hemodialysis patients.

            Vitamin D deficiency is associated with cardiovascular disease, the most common cause of mortality in hemodialysis patients. To investigate the relation between blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) with hemodialysis outcomes, we measured baseline vitamin D levels in a cross-sectional analysis of 825 consecutive patients from within a prospective cohort of incident US hemodialysis patients. Of these patients, 78% were considered vitamin D deficient with 18% considered severely deficient. Calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone levels correlated poorly with 25D and 1,25D concentrations. To test the association between baseline vitamin D levels and 90-day mortality, we selected the next 175 consecutive participants who died within 90 days and compared them to the 750 patients who survived in a nested case-control analysis. While low vitamin D levels were associated with increased mortality, significant interaction was noted between vitamin D levels, subsequent active vitamin D therapy, and survival. Compared to patients with the highest 25D or 1,25D levels who received therapy, untreated deficient patients were at significantly increased risk for early mortality. Our study shows that among incident hemodialysis patients, vitamin D deficiency is common, correlates poorly with other components of mineral metabolism and is associated with increased early mortality.
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              Survival of patients undergoing hemodialysis with paricalcitol or calcitriol therapy.

              Elevated calcium and phosphorus levels after therapy with injectable vitamin D for secondary hyperparathyroidism may accelerate vascular disease and hasten death in patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis. Paricalcitol, a new vitamin D analogue, appears to lessen the elevations in serum calcium and phosphorus levels, as compared with calcitriol, the standard form of injectable vitamin D. We conducted a historical cohort study to compare the 36-month survival rate among patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis who started to receive treatment with paricalcitol (29,021 patients) or calcitriol (38,378 patients) between 1999 and 2001. Crude and adjusted survival rates were calculated and stratified analyses were performed. A subgroup of 16,483 patients who switched regimens was also evaluated. The mortality rate among patients receiving paricalcitol was 3417 per 19,031 person-years (0.180 per person-year), as compared with 6805 per 30,471 person-years (0.223 per person-year) among those receiving calcitriol (P<0.001). The difference in survival was significant at 12 months and increased with time (P<0.001). In the adjusted analysis, the mortality rate was 16 percent lower (95 percent confidence interval, 10 to 21 percent) among paricalcitol-treated patients than among calcitriol-treated patients. A significant survival benefit was evident in 28 of 42 strata examined, and in no stratum was calcitriol favored. At 12 months, calcium and phosphorus levels had increased by 6.7 and 11.9 percent, respectively, in the paricalcitol group, as compared with 8.2 and 13.9 percent, respectively, in the calcitriol group (P<0.001). The two-year survival rate among patients who switched from calcitriol to paricalcitol was 73 percent, as compared with 64 percent among those who switched from paricalcitol to calcitriol (P=0.04). Patients who receive paricalcitol while undergoing long-term hemodialysis appear to have a significant survival advantage over those who receive calcitriol. A prospective, randomized study is critical to confirm these findings. Copyright 2003 Massachusetts Medical Society

                Author and article information

                Cardiorenal Med
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                December 2014
                22 October 2014
                : 4
                : 3-4
                : 217-224
                Department of Nephrology, Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences, Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, Chengdu, PR China
                Author notes
                *Fang Wang or Li Wang, Department of Nephrology, Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences, Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, Chengdu 610072 (PR China), E-Mail or
                368203 PMC4299263 Cardiorenal Med 2014;4:217-224
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, Pages: 8
                Original Paper


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