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      Disease-Related Malnutrition and Sarcopenia Predict Worse Outcome in Medical Inpatients: A Cohort Study

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          Abstract

          (1) Background: Both sarcopenia and disease-related malnutrition (DRM) are unfortunately underdiagnosed and undertreated in our Western hospitals, which could lead to worse clinical outcomes. Our objectives included to determine the impact of low muscle mass (MM) and strength, and also DRM and sarcopenia, on clinical outcomes (length of stay, death, readmissions at three months, and quality of life). (2) Methodology: Prospective cohort study in medical inpatients. On admission, MM and hand grip strength (HGS) were assessed. The Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) criteria were used to diagnose DRM and EWGSOP2 for sarcopenia. Assessment was repeated after one week and at discharge. Quality of life (EuroQoL-5D), length of stay (LoS), readmissions and mortality are reported. (3) Results: Two hundred medical inpatients, median 76.0 years-old and 68% with high comorbidity. 27.5% met GLIM criteria and 33% sarcopenia on admission, increasing to 38.1% and 52.3% on discharge. Both DRM and sarcopenia were associated with worse QoL. 6.5% died and 32% readmission in 3 months. The odds ratio (OR) of mortality for DRM was 4.36 and for sarcopenia 8.16. Readmissions were significantly associated with sarcopenia (OR = 2.25) but not with DRM. A higher HGS, but not MM, was related to better QoL, less readmissions (OR = 0.947) and lower mortality (OR = 0.848) after adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidity. (4) Conclusions: In medical inpatients, mostly polymorbid, both DRM but specially sarcopenia are associated with poorer quality of life, more readmissions, and higher mortality. Low HGS proved to be a stronger predictor of worse outcomes than MM.

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          Most cited references 35

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          A new method of classifying prognostic comorbidity in longitudinal studies: Development and validation

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            Sarcopenia: revised European consensus on definition and diagnosis

            Abstract Background in 2010, the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) published a sarcopenia definition that aimed to foster advances in identifying and caring for people with sarcopenia. In early 2018, the Working Group met again (EWGSOP2) to update the original definition in order to reflect scientific and clinical evidence that has built over the last decade. This paper presents our updated findings. Objectives to increase consistency of research design, clinical diagnoses and ultimately, care for people with sarcopenia. Recommendations sarcopenia is a muscle disease (muscle failure) rooted in adverse muscle changes that accrue across a lifetime; sarcopenia is common among adults of older age but can also occur earlier in life. In this updated consensus paper on sarcopenia, EWGSOP2: (1) focuses on low muscle strength as a key characteristic of sarcopenia, uses detection of low muscle quantity and quality to confirm the sarcopenia diagnosis, and identifies poor physical performance as indicative of severe sarcopenia; (2) updates the clinical algorithm that can be used for sarcopenia case-finding, diagnosis and confirmation, and severity determination and (3) provides clear cut-off points for measurements of variables that identify and characterise sarcopenia. Conclusions EWGSOP2's updated recommendations aim to increase awareness of sarcopenia and its risk. With these new recommendations, EWGSOP2 calls for healthcare professionals who treat patients at risk for sarcopenia to take actions that will promote early detection and treatment. We also encourage more research in the field of sarcopenia in order to prevent or delay adverse health outcomes that incur a heavy burden for patients and healthcare systems.
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              Hand grip strength: outcome predictor and marker of nutritional status.

              Among all muscle function tests, measurement of hand grip strength has gained attention as a simple, non-invasive marker of muscle strength of upper extremities, well suitable for clinical use. This review outlines the prognostic relevance of grip strength in various clinical and epidemiologic settings and investigates its suitability as marker of nutritional status in cross-sectional as well as intervention studies. Studies investigating grip strength as prognostic marker or nutritional parameter in cross-sectional or intervention studies were summarized. Numerous clinical and epidemiological studies have shown the predictive potential of hand grip strength regarding short and long-term mortality and morbidity. In patients, impaired grip strength is an indicator of increased postoperative complications, increased length of hospitalization, higher rehospitalisation rate and decreased physical status. In elderly in particular, loss of grip strength implies loss of independence. Epidemiological studies have moreover demonstrated that low grip strength in healthy adults predicts increased risk of functional limitations and disability in higher age as well as all-cause mortality. As muscle function reacts early to nutritional deprivation, hand grip strength has also become a popular marker of nutritional status and is increasingly being employed as outcome variable in nutritional intervention studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                NUTRHU
                Nutrients
                Nutrients
                MDPI AG
                2072-6643
                September 2021
                August 25 2021
                : 13
                : 9
                : 2937
                Article
                10.3390/nu13092937
                f294752a-8457-4ab9-930a-8a63e28b0b8a
                © 2021
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