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      Morphological Predictive Features on Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography for Visual Outcomes in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration Treated with Ranibizumab


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          To identify spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) predictive morphological features for the outcome of Ranibizumab therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD).


          This is a retrospective multicentric study that involved 64 eyes with naïve AMD. Patients who received three monthly intravitreal injections of Ranibizumab were stratified into (1) “responders” [≥ 5 letters gain on Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) scale] and (2) “nonresponders” (< 5 letters gain). Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and SD-OCT morphological features were compared at baseline and one month after three consecutive injections of Ranibizumab. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to correlate these morphological features with the change in BCVA.


          Among the 64 patients enrolled, 40 (62.5%) were “responders” and 24 (37.5%) “nonresponders”. Age, sex, and BCVA were comparable between both groups. A multivariate correlational analysis found that subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) and the presence of pigment epithelial detachment (PED) > 250 μm at baseline were two independent prognostic indicators of final BCVA. No other SD-OCT morphological studied features seem to affect final BCVA after Ranibizumab treatment.


          SFCT and the presence of PED > 250 μm are two significant biomarkers that may predict improvement after Ranibizumab therapy for AMD. These markers may guide ophthalmologists' treatment decision under financial constraints and limited time.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Ranibizumab and bevacizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

          Clinical trials have established the efficacy of ranibizumab for the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In addition, bevacizumab is used off-label to treat AMD, despite the absence of similar supporting data. In a multicenter, single-blind, noninferiority trial, we randomly assigned 1208 patients with neovascular AMD to receive intravitreal injections of ranibizumab or bevacizumab on either a monthly schedule or as needed with monthly evaluation. The primary outcome was the mean change in visual acuity at 1 year, with a noninferiority limit of 5 letters on the eye chart. Bevacizumab administered monthly was equivalent to ranibizumab administered monthly, with 8.0 and 8.5 letters gained, respectively. Bevacizumab administered as needed was equivalent to ranibizumab as needed, with 5.9 and 6.8 letters gained, respectively. Ranibizumab as needed was equivalent to monthly ranibizumab, although the comparison between bevacizumab as needed and monthly bevacizumab was inconclusive. The mean decrease in central retinal thickness was greater in the ranibizumab-monthly group (196 μm) than in the other groups (152 to 168 μm, P=0.03 by analysis of variance). Rates of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke were similar for patients receiving either bevacizumab or ranibizumab (P>0.20). The proportion of patients with serious systemic adverse events (primarily hospitalizations) was higher with bevacizumab than with ranibizumab (24.1% vs. 19.0%; risk ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 1.66), with excess events broadly distributed in disease categories not identified in previous studies as areas of concern. At 1 year, bevacizumab and ranibizumab had equivalent effects on visual acuity when administered according to the same schedule. Ranibizumab given as needed with monthly evaluation had effects on vision that were equivalent to those of ranibizumab administered monthly. Differences in rates of serious adverse events require further study. (Funded by the National Eye Institute; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00593450.).
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            Randomized, double-masked, sham-controlled trial of ranibizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration: PIER Study year 1.

            To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ranibizumab administered monthly for three months and then quarterly in patients with subfoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Phase IIIb, multicenter, randomized, double-masked, sham injection-controlled trial in patients with predominantly or minimally classic or occult with no classic CNV lesions. Patients were randomized 1:1:1 to 0.3 mg ranibizumab (n = 60), 0.5 mg ranibizumab (n = 61), or sham (n = 63) treatment groups. The primary efficacy endpoint was mean change from baseline visual acuity (VA) at month 12. Mean changes from baseline VA at 12 months were -16.3, -1.6, and -0.2 letters for the sham, 0.3 mg, and 0.5 mg groups, respectively (P < or = .0001, each ranibizumab dose vs sham). Ranibizumab arrested CNV growth and reduced leakage from CNV. However, the treatment effect declined in the ranibizumab groups during quarterly dosing (e.g., at three months the mean changes from baseline VA had been gains of 2.9 and 4.3 letters for the 0.3 mg and 0.5 mg doses, respectively). Results of subgroups analyses of mean change from baseline VA at 12 months by baseline age, VA, and lesion characteristics were consistent with the overall results. Few serious ocular or nonocular adverse events occurred in any group. Ranibizumab administered monthly for three months and then quarterly provided significant VA benefit to patients with AMD-related subfoveal CNV and was well tolerated. The incidence of serious ocular or nonocular adverse events was low.
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              Intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) for neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

              To report the short-term safety, biologic effect, and a possible mechanism of action of intravitreal bevacizumab in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Interventional, consecutive, retrospective case series. Eighty-one eyes of 79 patients with subfoveal neovascular AMD. Patients received intravitreal bevacizumab (1.25 mg) on a monthly basis until macular edema, subretinal fluid (SRF), and/or pigment epithelial detachment (PED) resolved. Ophthalmic evaluations included nonstandardized Snellen visual acuity (VA), complete ophthalmic examination, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Assessments of safety, changes in Snellen VA, OCT retinal thickness, and angiographic lesion characteristics were performed. No significant ocular or systemic side effects were observed. Most patients (55%) had a reduction of >10% of baseline retinal thickness at 1 week after the injection. At 4 weeks after injection, 30 of 81 eyes demonstrated complete resolution of retinal edema, SRF, and PEDs. Of the 51 eyes with 8 weeks' follow-up, 25 had complete resolution of retinal thickening, SRF, and PEDs. At 1, 4, 8,and 12 weeks, the mean retinal thickness of the central 1 mm was decreased by 61, 92, 89, and 67 mum, respectively (P<0.0001 for 1, 4, and 8 weeks and P<0.01 for 12 weeks). At 4 and 8 weeks, mean VA improved from 20/200 to 20/125 (P<0.0001). Median vision improved from 20/200 to 20/80(-) at 4 weeks and from 20/200 to 20/80 at 8 weeks. Short-term results suggest that intravitreal bevacizumab (1.25 mg) is well tolerated and associated with improvement in VA, decreased retinal thickness by OCT, and reduction in angiographic leakage in most patients, the majority of whom had previous treatment with photodynamic therapy and/or pegaptanib. Further evaluation of intravitreal bevacizumab for the treatment of choroidal neovascularization is warranted.

                Author and article information

                Biomed Res Int
                Biomed Res Int
                BioMed Research International
                26 June 2018
                : 2018
                1Eye & Ear Hospital International, Beirut, Lebanon
                2Holy Spirit University of Kaslik (USEK), Faculty of Medicine, Kaslik, Lebanon
                3Saint Joseph University (USJ), Faculty of Medicine, Beirut, Lebanon
                4Rothschild Ophthalmological Foundation, 25 rue Manin, 75940 Paris Cedex 19, France
                5Pole Vision Center, Clinique du Val-d'Ouest, 39 chemin de la Vernique, 69130 Écully, France
                6Halles de Tours Ophthalmological Center, 13 place Gaston-Paillhou, 37000 Tours, France
                7Explore Vision Center, 2 rue Grandes-Terres, 92500 Rueil-Malmaison, France
                8Quinze-Vingts Ophthalmology National Center, 28 rue de Charenton, 75571 Paris Cedex, France
                9Maison Rouge Ophthalmological Center, 6 rue de l'Eglise, 67000 Strasbourg, France
                10Nantes University Hospital Center, 8 quai Moncousu, 44000 Nantes, France
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Juan M. Bueno

                Copyright © 2018 Georges Azar et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Research Article


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