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      Evidence for Genetic Heterogeneity in Benign Familial Hematuria

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          Benign familial hematuria (BFH: MIM141200) is an autosomal-dominant disease accounting for one-fifth of all hematuria of unknown cause in children. Previous observations suggest that BFH may be allelic to recessive Alport syndrome (AS: MIM 203780) with a mutation in the COL4A3/COL4A4 locus. However, it is not clear whether all cases of BFH are due to heterozygous mutation of COL4A3/COL4A4 genes. We report here the exclusion of linkage between BFH and COL4A3/COL4A4 loci at 2q35-37 in a restricted population from Sicily (Italy). Total lod score is –9.6 at theta 0. Furthermore, in some cases exclusion of linkage is evident even considering single families. We conclude that BFH is genetically heterogeneous.

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          Most cited references 4

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          Identification of mutations in the alpha 3(IV) and alpha 4(IV) collagen genes in autosomal recessive Alport syndrome.

          Alport syndrome (AS) is an hereditary disease of basement membranes characterized by progressive renal failure and deafness. Changes in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) in AS suggest that the type IV collagen matrix, the major structural component of GBM, is disrupted. We recently isolated the genes for two type IV collagens, alpha 3(IV) and alpha 4(IV), that are encoded head-to-head on human chromosome 2. These chains are abundant in normal GBM but are sometimes absent in AS. We screened for mutations in families in which consanguinity suggested autosomal recessive inheritance. Homozygous mutations were found in alpha 3(IV) in two families and in alpha 4(IV) in two others, demonstrating that these chains are important in the structural integrity of the GBM and that there is an autosomal form of AS in addition to the previously-defined X-linked form.
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            A large duplication in the gene for lysyl hydroxylase accounts for the type VI variant of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome in two siblings.

            Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by joint hypermobility, skin hyperextensibility, fragility, and other signs of connective tissue involvement. In addition to these, the type VI variant of the disease has some special characteristics such as kyphoscoliosis and ocular abnormalities. The biochemical abnormality in most patients with this autosomal recessively inherited type VI variant is a deficiency in the activity of lysyl hydroxylase (EC, the enzyme catalyzing the formation of hydroxylysine in collagens and other proteins with collagen-like amino acid sequences. The type VI variant of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome was first identified in two sisters with a reduced amount of lysyl hydroxylase activity in their skin fibroblasts (S.R. Pinnell, S. M. Krane, J. E. Kenzora, and M. J. Glimcher (1972) N. Engl. J. Med. 286: 1013-1020). Our recent molecular cloning of lysyl hydroxylase has now made it possible to study the mutations leading to the deficiency in lysyl hydroxylase activity in these cells. Our data indicate that the mRNA for lysyl hydroxylase produced in the affected cells is about 4 kb in size, whereas it is 3.2 kb in the control cells. The sequencing of the cDNA for lysyl hydroxylase from the affected cells revealed an apparently homozygous duplication rearrangement of nucleotides 1176 to 1955, corresponding to amino acids 326 to 585 in the normal sequence. From Southern blotting data, the duplicated area in the gene equals about 6-9 kb and corresponds to seven exons.
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              • Abstract: not found
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              Familial benign essential hematuria.


                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                August 1999
                13 August 1999
                : 19
                : 4
                : 464-467
                aGenetica Medica, Policlinico Le Scotte, Siena; bTelethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine (TIGEM), San Raffaele, Milan; cClinica Pediatrica, Policlinico di Catania, Italy
                13499 Am J Nephrol 1999;19:464–467
                © 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

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