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Is older adult care mediated by caregivers’ cultural stereotypes? The role of competence and warmth attribution

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      Abstract

      Purpose

      The purpose of this study is to examine, from the stereotype content model (SCM) perspective, the role of the competence and warmth stereotypes of older adults held by professional caregivers.

      Methods

      A quasi-experimental design, ex post facto with observational analyses, was used in this study. The cultural view on competence and warmth was assessed in 100 caregivers working in a set of six residential geriatric care units (three of them organized following a person-centered care approach and the other three providing standard geriatric care). In order to assess caregivers’ cultural stereotypical views, the SCM questionnaire was administered. To evaluate the role of caregivers’ cultural stereotypes in their professional performance as well as in older adult functioning, two observational scales from the Sistema de Evaluación de Residencias de Ancianos (assessment system for older adults residences)-RS (staff functioning and residents’ functioning) were applied.

      Results

      Caregivers’ cultural views of older adults (compared to young people) are characterized by low competence and high warmth, replicating the data obtained elsewhere from the SCM. Most importantly, the person-centered units predict better staff performance and better resident functioning than standard units. Moreover, cultural stereotyping of older adult competence moderates the effects of staff performance on resident functioning, in line with the findings of previous research.

      Conclusion

      Our results underline the influence of caregivers’ cultural stereotypes on the type of care, as well as on their professional behaviors and on older adult functioning. Caregivers’ cultural stereotypes could be considered as a central issue in older adult care since they mediate the triangle of care: caregivers/older adults/type of care; therefore, much more attention should be paid to this psychosocial care component.

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      Most cited references 30

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      Methods for integrating moderation and mediation: a general analytical framework using moderated path analysis.

      Studies that combine moderation and mediation are prevalent in basic and applied psychology research. Typically, these studies are framed in terms of moderated mediation or mediated moderation, both of which involve similar analytical approaches. Unfortunately, these approaches have important shortcomings that conceal the nature of the moderated and the mediated effects under investigation. This article presents a general analytical framework for combining moderation and mediation that integrates moderated regression analysis and path analysis. This framework clarifies how moderator variables influence the paths that constitute the direct, indirect, and total effects of mediated models. The authors empirically illustrate this framework and give step-by-step instructions for estimation and interpretation. They summarize the advantages of their framework over current approaches, explain how it subsumes moderated mediation and mediated moderation, and describe how it can accommodate additional moderator and mediator variables, curvilinear relationships, and structural equation models with latent variables. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.
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        A model of (often mixed) stereotype content: competence and warmth respectively follow from perceived status and competition.

         Jun Xu,  Peter Glick,  S Fiske (2002)
        Stereotype research emphasizes systematic processes over seemingly arbitrary contents, but content also may prove systematic. On the basis of stereotypes' intergroup functions, the stereotype content model hypothesizes that (a) 2 primary dimensions are competence and warmth, (b) frequent mixed clusters combine high warmth with low competence (paternalistic) or high competence with low warmth (envious), and (c) distinct emotions (pity, envy, admiration, contempt) differentiate the 4 competence-warmth combinations. Stereotypically, (d) status predicts high competence, and competition predicts low warmth. Nine varied samples rated gender, ethnicity, race, class, age, and disability out-groups. Contrary to antipathy models, 2 dimensions mattered, and many stereotypes were mixed, either pitying (low competence, high warmth subordinates) or envying (high competence, low warmth competitors). Stereotypically, status predicted competence, and competition predicted low warmth.
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          Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis

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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1]Clinical and Health Psychology, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM), Spain
            [2]Social Psychology, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), Spain
            [3]Psychology Department, Universidad Europea de Madrid (UEM), Spain
            [4]Matia Instituto Gerontológico, Madrid, Spain
            Author notes
            Correspondence: Rocío Fernández-Ballesteros, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM), C/Ivan Pavlov, 6, Ciudad Universitaria de Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049, Spain, Tel +34 91 497 5181, Email r.fballesteros@123456uam.es
            Journal
            Clin Interv Aging
            Clin Interv Aging
            Clinical Interventions in Aging
            Clinical Interventions in Aging
            Dove Medical Press
            1176-9092
            1178-1998
            2016
            05 May 2016
            : 11
            : 545-552
            27217736
            4862347
            10.2147/CIA.S96235
            cia-11-545
            © 2016 Fernández-Ballesteros et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

            The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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