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      Exosomes secreted by human urine-derived stem cells could prevent kidney complications from type I diabetes in rats

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          Abstract

          Background

          Diabetic nephropathy is one of the most serious complications in patients with diabetes. At present, there are no satisfactory treatments available for diabetic nephropathy. Stem cells are currently the main candidates for the development of new treatments for diabetic nephropathy, as they may exert their therapeutic effects mainly through paracrine mechanisms. Exosomes derived from stem cells have been reported to play an important role in kidney injury. In this article, we try to investigate whether exosomes retrieved from urine stem cells could itself prevent diabetic nephropathy at an early stage in vivo and in vitro.

          Methods

          Exosomes from conditioned medium of urine-derived stem cells (USCs-Exo) were isolated using ultrafiltration-combined purification methods. USCs-Exo were then verified by morphology, size, and specific biomarkers using transmission electron microscopy, tunable resistive pulse sensing analysis, and western blotting. After establishment of the streptozotocin-induced Sprague–Dawley rat model, the effects of USCs-Exo on kidney injury and angiogenesis were observed via weekly tail intravenous injection of USCs-Exo or control until 12 weeks. In vitro, podocytes cultured in high-glucose medium were treated with USCs-Exo to test the protective effect of USCs-Exo on podocytic apoptosis. Meanwhile, the potential factors in promoting vascular regeneration in USCs-Exo and urine-derived stem cell conditioned medium were investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

          Results

          Urine-derived stem cells were cultured and were verified by positive markers for CD29, CD73, CD90 and CD44 antigens, and negative markers for CD34, CD45 and HLA-DR. USCs-Exo were approximately 50–100 nm spherical vesicles, and the specific markers included CD9, CD63 and CD81. Intravenous injections of USCs-Exo could potentially reduce the urine volume and urinary microalbumin excretion, prevent podocyte and tubular epithelial cell apoptosis, suppress the caspase-3 overexpression and increase glomerular endothelial cell proliferation in diabetic rats. In addition, USCs-Exo could reduce podocytic apoptosis induced by high glucose in vitro. USCs-Exo contained the potential factors, including growth factor, transforming growth factor-β1, angiogenin and bone morphogenetic protein-7, which may be related with vascular regeneration and cell survival.

          Conclusion

          USCs-Exo may have the potential to prevent kidney injury from diabetes by inhibiting podocyte apoptosis and promoting vascular regeneration and cell survival.

          Electronic supplementary material

          The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13287-016-0287-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          Most cited references 32

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          Microvesicles Derived from Mesenchymal Stem Cells Enhance Survival in a Lethal Model of Acute Kidney Injury

          Several studies demonstrated that treatment with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) reduces cisplatin mortality in mice. Microvesicles (MVs) released from MSCs were previously shown to favor renal repair in non lethal toxic and ischemic acute renal injury (AKI). In the present study we investigated the effects of MSC-derived MVs in SCID mice survival in lethal cisplatin-induced AKI. Moreover, we evaluated in vitro the effect of MVs on cisplatin-induced apoptosis of human renal tubular epithelial cells and the molecular mechanisms involved. Two different regimens of MV injection were used. The single administration of MVs ameliorated renal function and morphology, and improved survival but did not prevent chronic tubular injury and persistent increase in BUN and creatinine. Multiple injections of MVs further decreased mortality and at day 21 surviving mice showed normal histology and renal function. The mechanism of protection was mainly ascribed to an anti-apoptotic effect of MVs. In vitro studies demonstrated that MVs up-regulated in cisplatin-treated human tubular epithelial cells anti-apoptotic genes, such as Bcl-xL, Bcl2 and BIRC8 and down-regulated genes that have a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis such as Casp1, Casp8 and LTA. In conclusion, MVs released from MSCs were found to exert a pro-survival effect on renal cells in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that MVs may contribute to renal protection conferred by MSCs.
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            Exosomes released by human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells protect against cisplatin-induced renal oxidative stress and apoptosis in vivo and in vitro

            Introduction Administration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or secreted microvesicles improves recovery from acute kidney injury (AKI). However, the potential roles and mechanisms are not well understood. In the current study, we focused on the protective effect of exosomes derived from human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hucMSC-ex) on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in vivo and in vitro. Methods We constructed cisplatin-induced AKI rat models. At 24 h after treatment with cisplatin, hucMSC-ex were injected into the kidneys via the renal capsule; human lung fibroblast (HFL-1)-secreted exosomes (HFL-1-ex) were used as controls. All animals were killed at day 5 after administration of cisplatin. Renal function, histological changes, tubular apoptosis and proliferation, and degree of oxidative stress were evaluated. In vitro, rat renal tubular epithelial (NRK-52E) cells were treated with or without cisplatin and after 6 h treated with or without exosomes. Cells continued to be cultured for 24 h, and were then harvested for western blotting, apoptosis and detection of degree of oxidative stress. Results After administration of cisplatin, there was an increase in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) levels, apoptosis, necrosis of proximal kidney tubules and formation of abundant tubular protein casts and oxidative stress in rats. Cisplatin-induced AKI rats treated with hucMSC-ex, however, showed a significant reduction in all the above indexes. In vitro, treatment with cisplatin alone in NRK-52E cells resulted in an increase in the number of apoptotic cells, oxidative stress and activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) pathway followed by a rise in the expression of caspase 3, and a decrease in cell multiplication, while those results were reversed in the hucMSCs-ex-treated group. Furthermore, it was observed that hucMSC-ex promoted cell proliferation by activation of the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 pathway. Conclusions The results in the present study indicate that hucMSC-ex can repair cisplatin-induced AKI in rats and NRK-52E cell injury by ameliorating oxidative stress and cell apoptosis, promoting cell proliferation in vivo and in vitro. This suggests that hucMSC-ex could be exploited as a potential therapeutic tool in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.
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              Mesenchymal stem cell exosome: a novel stem cell-based therapy for cardiovascular disease.

              Cardiovascular disease is a major target for many experimental stem cell-based therapies and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are widely used in these therapies. Transplantation of MSCs to treat cardiac disease has always been predicated on the hypothesis that these cells would engraft, differentiate and replace damaged cardiac tissues. However, experimental or clinical observations so far have failed to demonstrate a therapeutically relevant level of transplanted MSC engraftment or differentiation. Instead, they indicate that transplanted MSCs secrete factors to reduce tissue injury and/or enhance tissue repair. Here we review the evidences supporting this hypothesis including the recent identification of exosome as a therapeutic agent in MSC secretion. In particular, we will discuss the potential and practicality of using this relatively novel entity as a therapeutic modality for the treatment of cardiac disease, particularly acute myocardial infarction.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                jiangzhenzhen1989@126.com
                liuyumeimeimei@163.com
                niuxin999@163.com
                464786730@qq.com
                6311089@qq.com
                1321165979@qq.com
                fanyingsh@126.com
                wangy63cn@126.com
                wangniansong2012@163.com
                Journal
                Stem Cell Res Ther
                Stem Cell Res Ther
                Stem Cell Research & Therapy
                BioMed Central (London )
                1757-6512
                6 February 2016
                6 February 2016
                2016
                : 7
                Affiliations
                [ ]Department of Nephrology and Rheumatology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People’s Hospital, Shanghai, 200233 P.R. China
                [ ]Institute of Microsurgery on Extremities, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People’s Hospital, Shanghai, 200233 P.R. China
                Article
                287
                10.1186/s13287-016-0287-2
                4744390
                26852014
                © Jiang et al. 2016

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001809, National Natural Science Foundation of China;
                Award ID: 81472152
                Award ID: 81270824
                Award ID: 81170640
                Award Recipient :
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                Research
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                © The Author(s) 2016

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