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      Quercetin modulates iron homeostasis and iNOS expression of splenic macrophages in a rat model of iron deficiency anemia

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          Iron deficiency anemia is one of the most common micronutrient deficient conditions around the globe with various consequences, including the weakened immune system. Quercetin is widely distributed bioflavonoid; it has been debated for its dual roles in iron regulation. Quercetin-iron interaction in the body is a complex mechanism which has not been completely understood. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of quercetin on iron supplementation in iron deficiency anemia and on iNOS expression in splenic macrophages. The rat model of iron deficiency anemia was induced by feeding low iron diet to weanling rats for 20 days. The animals were then administered with ferrous sulfate, quercetin, and their combination for 30 days. Blood parameters, histopathological analysis, iron storage, CD68, iNOS and SLC40 expression in rat spleen were investigated. Our results showed that quercetin regulated iron absorption, despite SLC40 down-expression, indicating possible alternate route of iron transport, and that quercetin modulated iNOS production in splenic macrophages. .

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          Most cited references 45

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          iNOS-mediated nitric oxide production and its regulation.

           Fugen Aktan (2004)
          This review focuses on the production of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and its regulation under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. NO is an important biological mediator in the living organism that is synthesized from L-arginine using NADPH and molecular oxygen. However, the overproduction of NO which is catalyzed by iNOS, a soluble enzyme and active in its dimeric form, is cytotoxic. Immunostimulating cytokines or bacterial pathogens activate iNOS and generate high concentrations of NO through the activation of inducible nuclear factors, including NFkB. iNOS activation is regulated mainly at the transcriptional level, but also at posttranscriptional, translational and postranslational levels through effects on protein stability, dimerization, phosphorylation, cofactor binding and availability of oxygen and L-arginine as substrates. The prevention of the overproduction of NO in the living organism through control of regulatory pathways may assist in the treatment of high NO-mediated disorders without changing physiological levels of NO. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.
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            Iron biology in immune function, muscle metabolism and neuronal functioning.

             Daniel Beard (2001)
            The estimated prevalence of iron deficiency in the world suggests that there should be widespread negative consequences of this nutrient deficiency in both developed and developing countries. In considering the reality of these estimates, the Belmont Conference seeks to reconsider the accepted relationships of iron status to physiological, biochemical and neurological outcomes. This review focuses on the biological processes that we believe are the basis for alterations in the immune system, neural systems, and energy metabolism and exercise. The strength of evidence is considered in each of the domains and the large gaps in knowledge of basic biology or iron-dependent processes are identified. Iron is both an essential nutrient and a potential toxicant to cells; it requires a highly sophisticated and complex set of regulatory approaches to meet the demands of cells as well as prevent excess accumulation. It is hoped that this review of the more basic aspects of the biology of iron will set the stage for subsequent in-depth reviews of the relationship of iron to morbidity, mortality and functioning of iron-deficient individuals and populations.
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              Dietary flavonoid and isoflavone glycosides are hydrolysed by the lactase site of lactase phlorizin hydrolase.

              Lactase phlorizin hydrolase (LPH; EC is a membrane-bound, family 1 beta-glycosidase found on the brush border of the mammalian small intestine. LPH, purified from sheep small intestine, was capable of hydrolysing a range of flavonol and isoflavone glycosides. The catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) for the hydrolysis of quercetin-4'-glucoside, quercetin-3-glucoside, genistein-7-glucoside and daidzein-7-glucoside was 170, 137, 77 and 14 (mM(-1) s(-1)) respectively. The majority of the activity occurred at the lactase and not phlorizin hydrolase site. The ability of LPH to deglycosylate dietary (iso)flavonoid glycosides suggests a possible role for this enzyme in the metabolism of these biologically active compounds.

                Author and article information

                Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
                20 August 2018
                : 16
                : 8
                : 580-589
                1Dr. Panjwani Center for Molecular Medicine and Drug Research, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
                2H.E.J. Research Institute for Chemistry, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
                Author notes
                *Corresponding author: Shabana U Simjee, Tel: 92-21-99261701-2, E-mail: shabana.Simjee@ , sh01us@

                These authors have no conflict of interest to declare.

                Copyright © 2018 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


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