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      Isokinetic Strength Responses to Season-long Training and Competition in Turkish Elite Soccer Players


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          There are not enough studies that describe the isokinetic strength of professional soccer players at high angular velocities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the seasonal changes in isokinetic strength of Turkish professional soccer players (n=14) over the course of a 24-week soccer season. The isokinetic strength of players who underwent usual soccer training and weekly competition throughout the soccer season was assessed by means of the Biodex System 3 dynamometer with the knee attachment. The peak torque of knee extensor and flexor muscles were measured at angular velocities of 60°/s, 300°/s and 500°/s. Players were tested at the beginning and end of the competitive season. While the first- and second-test measurements did not show significant changes at 60°/s and 300°/s angular velocities, at the end of the training period, players’ knee strength changed significantly at 500°/s angular velocities. In addition, the H/Q ratio improved significantly for the dominant as well as non-dominant leg at 500°/s. Significant bilateral strength improvements for knee flexors were also observed at 500°/s. The findings of this study suggest that usual daily soccer training (technical, tactical, power, strength, endurance, flexibility, etc.) and weekly competition might produce changes in knee strength at high angular velocities.

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          Changes in force, cross-sectional area and neural activation during strength training and detraining of the human quadriceps.

          Four male subjects aged 23-34 years were studied during 60 days of unilateral strength training and 40 days of detraining. Training was carried out four times a week and consisted of six series of ten maximal isokinetic knee extensions at an angular velocity of 2.09 rad.s-1. At the start and at every 20th day of training and detraining, isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), integrated electromyographic activity (iEMG) and quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) assessed at seven fractions of femur length (Lf), by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, were measured on both trained (T) and untrained (UT) legs. Isokinetic torques at 30 degrees before full knee extension were measured before and at the end of training at: 0, 1.05, 2.09, 3.14, 4.19, 5.24 rad.s-1. After 60 days T leg CSA had increased by 8.5% +/- 1.4% (mean +/- SEM, n = 4, p less than 0.001), iEMG by 42.4% +/- 16.5% (p less than 0.01) and MVC by 20.8% +/- 5.4% (p less than 0.01). Changes during detraining had a similar time course to those of training. No changes in UT leg CSA were observed while iEMG and MVC increased by 24.8% +/- 10% (N.S.) and 8.7% +/- 4.3% (N.S.), respectively. The increase in quadriceps muscle CSA was maximal at 2/10 Lf (12.0% +/- 1.5%, p less than 0.01) and minimal, proximally to the knee, at 8/10 Lf (3.5% +/- 1.2%, N.S.). Preferential hypertrophy of the vastus medialis and intermedius muscles compared to those of the rectus femoris and lateralis muscles was observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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            Velocity specificity of resistance training.

            D. Sale, D Behm (1993)
            Velocity specificity of resistance training has demonstrated that the greatest strength gains occur at or near the training velocity. There is also evidence that the intent to make a high speed contraction may be the most crucial factor in velocity specificity. The mechanisms underlying the velocity-specific training effect may reside in both neural and muscular components. Muscular adaptations such as hypertrophy may inhibit high velocity strength adaptations due to changes in muscle architecture. However, some studies have reported velocity-specific contractile property adaptations suggesting changes in muscle kinetics. There is evidence to suggest velocity-specific electromyographic (EMG) adaptations with explosive jump training. Other researchers have hypothesised neural adaptations because of a lack of electrically evoked changes in relation to significant voluntary improvements. These neural adaptations may include the selective activation of motor units and/or muscles, especially with high velocity alternating contractions. Although the incidence of motor unit synchronisation increases with training, its contribution to velocity-specific strength gains is unclear. However, increased synchronisation may occur more frequently with the premovement silent period before ballistic contractions. The preprogrammed neural circuitry of ballistic contractions suggests that high velocity training adaptations may involve significant neural adaptations. The unique firing frequency associated with ballistic contractions would suggest possible adaptations in the frequency of motor unit discharge. Although co-contraction of antagonists increases with training and high velocity movement, its contribution is probably related more to joint protection than the velocity-specific training effect.
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              Effect of explosive type strength training on isometric force- and relaxation-time, electromyographic and muscle fibre characteristics of leg extensor muscles.

              To investigate the influence of explosive type strength training on isometric force- and relaxation-time and on electromyographic and muscle fibre characteristics of human skeletal muscle, 10 male subjects went through progressive training which included primarily jumping exercises without extra load and with light extra weights three times a week for 24 weeks. Specific training-induced changes in force-time curve were observed and demonstrated by great (P less than 0.05-0.01) improvements in in parameters of fast force production and by a minor (P less than 0.05) increase in maximal force. The continuous increases in fast force production during the entire training were accompanied by and correlated with the increases (P less than 0.05) in average IEMG-time curve and with the increase (P less than 0.05) in the FT:ST muscle fibre area ratio. The percentage of FT fibres of the muscle correlated (P less than 0.05) with the improvement of average force-time curve during the training. The increase in maximal force was accompanied by significant (P less than 0.05) increases in maximum IEMGs of the trained muscles. However, the hypertrophic changes, as judged from the anthropometric and muscle fibre area data, were only slight during the training. It can be concluded that in training for fast force production considerable neural and selective muscular adaptations may occur to explain the improvement in performance, but that genetic factors may determine the ultimate potential of the trainability of this aspect of the neuromuscular performance.

                Author and article information

                J Hum Kinet
                J Hum Kinet
                Journal of Human Kinetics
                Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego w Katowicach
                March 2012
                03 April 2012
                : 31
                : 159-168
                [1 ]School of Physical Education and Sports, Celal Bayar University, Manisa, Turkey.
                [2 ]Department of Kinesiology and Sports Studies, Eastern Illinois University, Charleston, IL, USA.
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Niyazi Eniseler Ph.D., Celal Bayar University, School of Physical Education and Sports, Manisa, Turkey., Phone: +90 236 23 146 45, Fax : +90 236 23 130 01, E-mail: niyazi.eniseler@ 123456bayar.edu.tr

                Authors submitted their contribution of the article to the editorial board.

                © Editorial Committee of Journal of Human Kinetics

                This article is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

                : March 2012
                Research Article
                Section III – Sports Training

                isokinetic strength,h/q ratio,bilateral strength,soccer,seasonal changes


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