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      The epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19

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          Highlights

          • The mean incubation period is 2-14 days, and the basic reproduction number is 2.24-3.58.

          • COVID-19 infection should be diagnosed clinically with typical respiratory syndromes coupled with recent exposure.

          • Chest computerized tomography (CT) could facilitate early diagnosis.

          • Public health measures, such as isolation, quarantine, social distancing and community containment, can curb COVID-19.

          • Clinical trials assessing antivirals, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, glucocorticoids, convalescent plasma transfusion against COVID-19.

          Abstract

          In December 2019, the outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in China spread worldwide, becoming an emergency of major international concern. SARS-CoV-2 infection causes clusters of severe respiratory illness similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Human-to-human transmission via droplets, contaminated hands or surfaces has been described, with incubation times of 2-14 days. Early diagnosis, quarantine, and supportive treatments are essential to cure patients. This paper reviews the literature on all available information about the epidemiology, diagnosis, isolation and treatments of COVID-19. Treatments, including antiviral agents, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, corticosteroids, antibodies, convalescent plasma transfusion and vaccines, are discussed in this article. In addition, registered trials investigating treatment options for COVID-19 infection are listed.

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          Most cited references71

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          Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China

          Summary Background A recent cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China, was caused by a novel betacoronavirus, the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). We report the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics and treatment and clinical outcomes of these patients. Methods All patients with suspected 2019-nCoV were admitted to a designated hospital in Wuhan. We prospectively collected and analysed data on patients with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection by real-time RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing. Data were obtained with standardised data collection forms shared by WHO and the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium from electronic medical records. Researchers also directly communicated with patients or their families to ascertain epidemiological and symptom data. Outcomes were also compared between patients who had been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and those who had not. Findings By Jan 2, 2020, 41 admitted hospital patients had been identified as having laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection. Most of the infected patients were men (30 [73%] of 41); less than half had underlying diseases (13 [32%]), including diabetes (eight [20%]), hypertension (six [15%]), and cardiovascular disease (six [15%]). Median age was 49·0 years (IQR 41·0–58·0). 27 (66%) of 41 patients had been exposed to Huanan seafood market. One family cluster was found. Common symptoms at onset of illness were fever (40 [98%] of 41 patients), cough (31 [76%]), and myalgia or fatigue (18 [44%]); less common symptoms were sputum production (11 [28%] of 39), headache (three [8%] of 38), haemoptysis (two [5%] of 39), and diarrhoea (one [3%] of 38). Dyspnoea developed in 22 (55%) of 40 patients (median time from illness onset to dyspnoea 8·0 days [IQR 5·0–13·0]). 26 (63%) of 41 patients had lymphopenia. All 41 patients had pneumonia with abnormal findings on chest CT. Complications included acute respiratory distress syndrome (12 [29%]), RNAaemia (six [15%]), acute cardiac injury (five [12%]) and secondary infection (four [10%]). 13 (32%) patients were admitted to an ICU and six (15%) died. Compared with non-ICU patients, ICU patients had higher plasma levels of IL2, IL7, IL10, GSCF, IP10, MCP1, MIP1A, and TNFα. Interpretation The 2019-nCoV infection caused clusters of severe respiratory illness similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and was associated with ICU admission and high mortality. Major gaps in our knowledge of the origin, epidemiology, duration of human transmission, and clinical spectrum of disease need fulfilment by future studies. Funding Ministry of Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, National Natural Science Foundation of China, and Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission.
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            A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019

            Summary In December 2019, a cluster of patients with pneumonia of unknown cause was linked to a seafood wholesale market in Wuhan, China. A previously unknown betacoronavirus was discovered through the use of unbiased sequencing in samples from patients with pneumonia. Human airway epithelial cells were used to isolate a novel coronavirus, named 2019-nCoV, which formed a clade within the subgenus sarbecovirus, Orthocoronavirinae subfamily. Different from both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, 2019-nCoV is the seventh member of the family of coronaviruses that infect humans. Enhanced surveillance and further investigation are ongoing. (Funded by the National Key Research and Development Program of China and the National Major Project for Control and Prevention of Infectious Disease in China.)
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              Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus–Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China

              In December 2019, novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)-infected pneumonia (NCIP) occurred in Wuhan, China. The number of cases has increased rapidly but information on the clinical characteristics of affected patients is limited.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Int J Antimicrob Agents
                Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents
                International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
                Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy.
                0924-8579
                1872-7913
                28 March 2020
                28 March 2020
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Neurology, Hubei Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Wuhan, 430073, Hubei, China
                [b ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hubei Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Wuhan, 430073, Hubei, China
                [c ]Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 410011, China
                [d ]ICU Center, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Furong, Changsha, Hunan, 41001, China
                [e ]Department of Critical Care Medicine, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, 430071, China
                Author notes
                [* ] Corresponding author. Yiming Li, Department of Critical Care Medicine, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, 430071, China. lym-fly@ 123456whu.edu.cn
                Article
                S0924-8579(20)30105-9 105955
                10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105955
                7138178
                32234468
                f2c770b1-10b4-4484-8e56-87ec3e420241
                © 2020 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

                Categories
                Article

                Infectious disease & Microbiology

                covid-19, pandemic, diagnosis, isolation, remdesivir, clinical trials

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