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      Motives for online gaming questionnaire: Its psychometric properties and correlation with Internet gaming disorder symptoms among Chinese people

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          Background and aims

          Internet gaming disorder (IGD) imposes a potential public health threat worldwide. Gaming motives are potentially salient factors of IGD, but research on Chinese gaming motives is scarce. This study empirically evaluated the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Motives for Online Gaming Questionnaire (C-MOGQ), the first inventory that measures seven different gaming motives applicable to all type of online games. We also investigated the associations between various gaming motives and IGD symptoms among Chinese gamers.


          Three hundred and eighty-three Chinese adult online gamers (Mean age = 23.7 years) voluntarily completed our online, anonymous survey in December 2015.


          The confirmatory factor analysis results supported a bi-factor model with a general factor subsuming all C-MOGQ items ( General Motivation) and seven uncorrelated domain-specific factors ( Escape, Coping, Fantasy, Skill Development, Recreation, Competition, and Social). High internal consistencies of the overall scale and subscales were observed. The criterion-related validity of this Chinese version was also supported by the positive correlations of C-MOGQ scale scores with psychological need satisfaction and time spent gaming. Furthermore, we found that high General Motivation (coupled with high Escape motive and low Skill Development motive) was associated with more IGD symptoms reported by our Chinese participants.

          Discussion and conclusions

          Our findings demonstrated the utility of C-MOGQ in measuring gaming motives of Chinese online gamers, and we recommend the consideration of both its total score and subscale scores in future studies.

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          Most cited references 57

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          Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions.

          Intrinsic and extrinsic types of motivation have been widely studied, and the distinction between them has shed important light on both developmental and educational practices. In this review we revisit the classic definitions of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in light of contemporary research and theory. Intrinsic motivation remains an important construct, reflecting the natural human propensity to learn and assimilate. However, extrinsic motivation is argued to vary considerably in its relative autonomy and thus can either reflect external control or true self-regulation. The relations of both classes of motives to basic human needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness are discussed. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
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            The Motivational Pull of Video Games: A Self-Determination Theory Approach

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              Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being.


                Author and article information

                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                J Behav Addict
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                06 March 2017
                March 2016
                : 6
                : 1
                : 11-20
                [ 1 ]Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Macau , Taipa, Macau, China
                [ 2 ]School of Education, University of Cincinnati , Cincinnati, OH, USA
                [ 3 ]The Jockey Club School of Public Health and Primary Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong , Hong Kong, China
                [ 4 ] Shenzhen Research Institute, The Chinese University of Hong Kong , Shenzhen, China
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Dr. Anise M. S. Wu, Associate Professor; Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Macau, Avenida da Universidade, Taipa, Macau, China; Phone: +853 8822 8377; Fax: +853 8822 2337; E-mail: anisewu@
                © 2017 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 4, Equations: 0, References: 52, Pages: 10
                Funding sources: The project was supported by a research grant from the University of Macau (Ref. no.: MYRG2015-00213-FSS).
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