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      A new species of Ypsolopha Latreille (Lepidoptera, Ypsolophidae) from the Andes of northern Chile

      Nota Lepidopterologica

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          Male and female adults of Ypsolopha moltenii sp. n. (Lepidoptera, Ypsolophidae) are described and illustrated from the western slopes of the Andes of northern Chile. Larvae of Y. moltenii feed on inflorescences of the native shrub Adesmia verrucosa Meyen (Fabaceae). This finding represent the first species of Ypsolopha Latreille, 1796 described from mainland Chile and the first species of this genus with larvae feeding on the highly diverse South American genus Adesmia.

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          Most cited references 9

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          Order Lepidoptera Linnaeus, 1758. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (Ed.) Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness

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            A Molecular Phylogeny for Yponomeutoidea (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Ditrysia) and Its Implications for Classification, Biogeography and the Evolution of Host Plant Use

            Background Yponomeutoidea, one of the early-diverging lineages of ditrysian Lepidoptera, comprise about 1,800 species worldwide, including notable pests and insect-plant interaction models. Yponomeutoids were one of the earliest lepidopteran clades to evolve external feeding and to extensively colonize herbaceous angiosperms. Despite the group’s economic importance, and its value for tracing early lepidopteran evolution, the biodiversity and phylogeny of Yponomeutoidea have been relatively little studied. Methodology/Principal Findings Eight nuclear genes (8 kb) were initially sequenced for 86 putative yponomeutoid species, spanning all previously recognized suprageneric groups, and 53 outgroups representing 22 families and 12 superfamilies. Eleven to 19 additional genes, yielding a total of 14.8 to 18.9 kb, were then sampled for a subset of taxa, including 28 yponomeutoids and 43 outgroups. Maximum likelihood analyses were conducted on data sets differing in numbers of genes, matrix completeness, inclusion/weighting of synonymous substitutions, and inclusion/exclusion of “rogue” taxa. Monophyly for Yponomeutoidea was supported very strongly when the 18 “rogue” taxa were excluded, and moderately otherwise. Results from different analyses are highly congruent and relationships within Yponomeutoidea are well supported overall. There is strong support overall for monophyly of families previously recognized on morphological grounds, including Yponomeutidae, Ypsolophidae, Plutellidae, Glyphipterigidae, Argyresthiidae, Attevidae, Praydidae, Heliodinidae, and Bedelliidae. We also assign family rank to Scythropiinae (Scythropiidae stat. rev.), which in our trees are strongly grouped with Bedelliidae, in contrast to all previous proposals. We present a working hypothesis of among-family relationships, and an informal higher classification. Host plant family associations of yponomeutoid subfamilies and families are non-random, but show no trends suggesting parallel phylogenesis. Our analyses suggest that previous characterizations of yponomeutoids as predominantly Holarctic were based on insufficient sampling. Conclusions/Significance We provide the first robust molecular phylogeny for Yponomeutoidea, together with a revised classification and new insights into their life history evolution and biogeography.
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              Estado de conservación de la flora nativa de las regiones de Arica-Parinacota y de Tarapacá, Chile

              El estado de conservación de la flora nativa a una escala administrativa como la regional es útil para implementar medidas que reduzcan la pérdida de biodiversidad a nivel local. En este trabajo se clasifica la flora nativa de las regiones de Arica-Parinacota y de Tarapacá según su estado de conservación, utilizando una base de datos de 7.432 registros geo- referenciados que corresponden a 717 especies vasculares nativas. La clasificación se realizó utilizando principalmente los criterios de distribución geográfica de UICN (versión 3.1). Un 27,6% de las especies nativas presentes en estas regiones presentan problemas de conservación (3,2% En Peligro y 24,4% Vulnerable). En la Región de Arica y Parinacota las especies amenazadas alcanzarían el 34,4% de la flora nativa y el 24,3% en la Región de Tarapacá. La flora nativa de estas dos regiones tiene un grado de amenaza mayor que los encontrados en las regiones de Antofagasta, Atacama o Coquimbo. Esto se explica parcialmente por distribuciones restringidas (bajas extensiones de la presencia y/o áreas de ocupación) sumado a una disminución en la calidad de su hábitat.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nota Lepidopterologica
                NL
                Pensoft Publishers
                2367-5365
                0342-7536
                October 05 2018
                October 05 2018
                : 41
                : 2
                : 199-205
                Article
                10.3897/nl.41.28570
                © 2018

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