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      Lack of Association Between Cytomegalovirus Infection and Hypertensive Disorders in Pregnancy: A Case-Control Study in Durango, Mexico

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          Abstract

          It is not clear whether infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) is associated with hypertensive disorders in pregnant women. Through a case-control study design, 146 women suffering from hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (cases) and 146 age-matched normotensive pregnant women (controls) were examined for the presence of anti-CMV IgG and IgM antibodies with enzyme-linked immunoassays. IgM seropositive samples were further assayed by enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA).

          Anti-CMV IgG antibodies were found in 138 (94.5%) controls and in 136 (93.2%) cases (odds ratio [OR] = 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.30–2.05; P = 0.62). High (>18 IU/ml) levels of anti-CMV IgG antibodies were found in 37.7% of the 138 seropositive controls and in 34.6% of the 136 seropositive cases (OR = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.53–1.43; P = 0.59). Anti-CMV IgM antibodies were found in 1 (0.7%) of the controls but in none of the cases using ELFA ( P = 1.0). Seropositivity to CMV was not associated with a previous preeclampsia and was similar among cases regardless their mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and mean arterial blood pressure.

          No serological evidence of an association between CMV infection and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy was found. Further research to elucidate the role of CMV in hypertensive disorders in pregnancy should be conducted.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Global and regional estimates of preeclampsia and eclampsia: a systematic review.

          Reduction of maternal mortality is a target within the Millennium Development Goals. Data on the incidence of preeclampsia and eclampsia, one of the main causes of maternal deaths, are required at both national and regional levels to inform policies. We conducted a systematic review of the incidence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) with the objective of evaluating its magnitude globally and in different regions and settings. We selected studies using pre-specified criteria, recorded database characteristics and assessed methodological quality of the eligible studies reporting incidence of any HDP during the period 2002-2010. A logistic model was then developed to estimate the global and regional incidence of HDP using pre-specified predictor variables where empiric data were not available. We found 129 studies meeting the inclusion criteria, from which 74 reports with 78 datasets reporting HDP were analysed. This represents nearly 39 million women from 40 countries. When the model was applied, the overall estimates are 4.6% (95% uncertainty range 2.7-8.2), and 1.4% (95% uncertainty range 1.0-2.0) of all deliveries for preeclampsia and eclampsia respectively, with a wide variation across regions. The figures we obtained give a general idea of the magnitude of the problem and suggest that some regional variations might exist. The absence of data in many countries is of concern, however, and efforts should be made to implement data collection and reporting for substantial statistics. The implementation of large scale surveys conducted during a short period of time could provide more reliable and up-to-date estimations to inform policy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Hypertensive disease of pregnancy and maternal mortality.

            The incidence of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy is increasing and is associated with maternal mortality worldwide. This review provides the obstetrician with an update of the current issues concerning hypertension and maternal mortality. Preeclampsia affects about 3% of pregnancies, and all other hypertensive disorders complicate approximately 5-10% of pregnancies in the United States. In industrialized countries, rates of preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, and chronic hypertension have increased as rates of eclampsia have decreased following widespread antenatal care and magnesium sulfate use. Increased maternal mortality is associated with eclampsia, hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count syndrome, hepatic or central nervous system hemorrhage, and vascular insult to the cardiopulmonary or renal system. Diagnosis and acute management of severe hypertension is central to reducing maternal mortality. African-American women have a higher risk of mortality from hypertensive disorders of pregnancy compared with Hispanic, American Indian/Alaska Native, Asian/Pacific Islander, and Caucasian women. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are a leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide. The incidence of hypertension in pregnancy continues to increase. Currently, we are unable to determine which patient will develop superimposed preeclampsia or identify subsets of preeclampsia syndrome. Opportunities for research in this area exist to better define treatment aimed at improving maternal outcomes.
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              Review: Biochemical markers to predict preeclampsia.

              Worldwide the prevalence of preeclampsia (PE) ranges from 3 to 8% of pregnancies. 8.5 million cases are reported yearly, but this is probably an underestimate due to the lack of proper diagnosis. PE is the most common cause of fetal and maternal death and yet no specific treatment is available. Reliable biochemical markers for prediction and diagnosis of PE would have a great impact on maternal health and several have been suggested. This review describes PE biochemical markers in general and first trimester PE biochemical markers specifically. The main categories described are angiogenic/anti-angiogenic factors, placental proteins, free fetal hemoglobin (HbF), kidney markers, ultrasound and maternal risk factors. The specific biochemical markers discussed are: PAPP-A, s-Flt-1/PlGF, s-Endoglin, PP13, cystatin-C, HbF, and α₁-microglobulin (A1M). PAPP-A and HbF both show potential as predictive biochemical markers in the first trimester with 70% sensitivity at 95% specificity. However, PAPP-A is not PE-specific and needs to be combined with Doppler ultrasound to obtain the same sensitivity as HbF/A1M. Soluble Flt -1 and PlGF are promising biochemical markers that together show high sensitivity from the mid-second trimester. PlGF is somewhat useful from the end of the first trimester. Screening pregnant women with biochemical markers for PE can reduce unnecessary suffering and health care costs by early detection of mothers at increased risk for PE, thus avoiding unnecessary hospitalization of pregnant women with suspect or mild PE and enabling monitoring of the progression of the disease thereby optimizing time for delivery and hopefully reducing the number of premature births. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                EUJMI
                European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                2062-509X
                2062-8633
                13 July 2017
                September 2017
                : 7
                : 3
                : 229-233
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Faculty of Medicine and Nutrition, Juárez University of Durango State , Avenida Universidad S/N, 34000 Durango, Dgo, Mexico
                [2 ] Institute for Scientific Research “Dr. Roberto Rivera Damm”, Juárez University of Durango State , Avenida Universidad S/N, 34000 Durango, Dgo, Mexico
                [3 ] General Hospital 450, Secretary of Health of Durango, Blvd. José María Patoni No. 403 , 34206, Durango, Dgo, Mexico
                Author notes
                * Laboratorio de Investigación Biomédica, Facultad de Medicina y Nutrición, Avenida Universidad S/N, 34000 Durango, Dgo, Mexico; 0052-618-8130527; 0052-618-8130527; alvaradocosme@ 123456yahoo.com
                Article
                10.1556/1886.2017.00013
                5632750
                © 2017, The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited, a link to the CC License is provided, and changes – if any – are indicated.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 30, Pages: 5
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