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      Determination of Flavonoids and Carotenoids and Their Contributions to Various Colors of Rose Cultivars ( Rosa spp.)

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          Rose is one of the most valuable ornamental crops worldwide. In this study, the composition of hydrophilic and lipophilic pigments in petals of six rose cultivars at seven developing stages was investigated using high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Four anthocyanins, 20 flavonols, and 10 carotenoids were detected in petals of tested cultivars. Major individual anthocyanin, flavonol, and carotenoid were cyanidin/pelargonidin 3,5-diglucoside, kaempferol 3- O-rhamnoside, and (9 Z)-violaxanthin, respectively. Significant differences were observed in pigments content in petals of different rose cultivars. The yellow petals of YI and GC exhibited no to very small amounts of anthocyanins, moderate amount of total flavonols, and highest content of total carotenoids. Similarly, pink petals of PF, WQ, and YX showed average concentration of total anthocyanins, highest concentration of total flavonols, and small amount of carotenoids. Further, orange petals of CH showed highest content of total anthocyanins, lowest content of total flavonols, and average content of total carotenoids. Correlation analysis demonstrated that there were many pigments influencing petal colors. Moreover, multiple linear regression indicated that pelargonidin 3,5-diglucoside, total anthocyanins and (9 Z)-violaxanthin were the major factors. In addition, this study showed that orange cultivar CH, pink cultivar PF and yellow cultivar YI can have great potential as a natural source for the extraction of pelargonidin 3- O-glucoside, kaempferol 3- O-rhamnoside, and (9 Z)-violaxanthin, respectively. These investigations would contribute toward understanding the mechanism on the development of flower colors and provide a theoretical basis for the breeding of rose with specific color.

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          Most cited references 42

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          The grapevine R2R3-MYB transcription factor VvMYBF1 regulates flavonol synthesis in developing grape berries.

          Flavonols are important ultraviolet light protectants in many plants and contribute substantially to the quality and health-promoting effects of fruits and derived plant products. To study the regulation of flavonol synthesis in fruit, we isolated and characterized the grapevine (Vitis vinifera 'Shiraz') R2R3-MYB transcription factor VvMYBF1. Transient reporter assays established VvMYBF1 to be a specific activator of flavonol synthase1 (VvFLS1) and several other promoters of grapevine and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genes involved in flavonol synthesis. Expression of VvMYBF1 in the Arabidopsis mutant myb12 resulted in complementation of its flavonol-deficient phenotype and confirmed the function of VvMYBF1 as a transcriptional regulator of flavonol synthesis. Transcript analysis of VvMYBF1 throughout grape berry development revealed its expression during flowering and in skins of ripening berries, which correlates with the accumulation of flavonols and expression of VvFLS1. In addition to its developmental regulation, VvMYBF1 expression was light inducible, implicating VvMYBF1 in the control of VvFLS1 transcription. Sequence analysis of VvMYBF1 and VvFLS1 indicated conserved putative light regulatory units in promoters of both genes from different cultivars. By analysis of the VvMYBF1 amino acid sequence, we identified the previously described SG7 domain and an additional sequence motif conserved in several plant MYB factors. The described motifs have been used to identify MYB transcription factors from other plant species putatively involved in the regulation of flavonol biosynthesis. To our knowledge, this is the first functional characterization of a light-inducible MYB transcription factor controlling flavonol synthesis in fruit.
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            Determination of phenolic acids and flavonoids of apple and pear by high-performance liquid chromatography.

            A new HPLC stationary phase has been applied to the analysis of phenolic acids and flavonoids with diode array and mass spectrometric detection. The separation of 26 standard compounds was achieved within 1 h. The stationary phase displayed excellent resolution especially of flavonol glycosides. The analytical system has been used for the determination of phenolic compounds in apple pomace and apple juice, and in extracts of pear fruits of different cultivars. Apple pomace was found to be a promising source of phenolics. However, yields are affected by the drying conditions applied. Furthermore, the applicability of the analytical system for the authenticity control of apple and pear juice was demonstrated by determination of characteristic quercetin and isorhamnetin glycosides, and dihydrochalcones, respectively. Since isorhamnetin-3-glucoside was present in all pear cultivars investigated, the usefulness of arbutin as a specific marker of pear products appears to be doubtful.
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              Spectral methods of characterizing anthocyanins.


                Author and article information

                Front Plant Sci
                Front Plant Sci
                Front. Plant Sci.
                Frontiers in Plant Science
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                12 February 2019
                : 10
                1Beijing Key Laboratory of Ornamental Plants Germplasm Innovation and Molecular Breeding, National Engineering Research Center for Floriculture, Beijing Laboratory of Urban and Rural Ecological Environment, Engineering Research Center of Landscape Environment of Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Genetics and Breeding in Forest Trees and Ornamental Plants of Ministry of Education, School of Landscape Architecture, Beijing Forestry University , Beijing, China
                2Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Tree Breeding by Molecular Design, Beijing Forestry University , Beijing, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Kevin Davies, The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research, Ltd., New Zealand

                Reviewed by: Anna Karolina Kiss, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland; Hiroshi Noguchi, Nihon Pharmaceutical University, Japan

                *Correspondence: Qixiang Zhang, zqxbjfu@

                These authors have contributed equally to this work

                This article was submitted to Plant Metabolism and Chemodiversity, a section of the journal Frontiers in Plant Science

                Copyright © 2019 Wan, Yu, Han, Guo, Luo, Pan, Zheng, Wang, Cheng and Zhang.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 3, Equations: 3, References: 48, Pages: 14, Words: 0
                Plant Science
                Original Research

                Plant science & Botany

                rose, petals, color, anthocyanins, flavonols, carotenoids


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