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      The adaptor molecule CARD9 is essential for tuberculosis control

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          Abstract

          The cross talk between host and pathogen starts with recognition of bacterial signatures through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which mobilize downstream signaling cascades. We investigated the role of the cytosolic adaptor caspase recruitment domain family, member 9 (CARD9) in tuberculosis. This adaptor was critical for full activation of innate immunity by converging signals downstream of multiple PRRs. Card9−/− mice succumbed early after aerosol infection, with higher mycobacterial burden, pyogranulomatous pneumonia, accelerated granulocyte recruitment, and higher abundance of proinflammatory cytokines and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in serum and lung. Neutralization of G-CSF and neutrophil depletion significantly prolonged survival, indicating that an exacerbated systemic inflammatory disease triggered lethality of Card9−/− mice. CARD9 deficiency had no apparent effect on T cell responses, but a marked impact on the hematopoietic compartment. Card9−/− granulocytes failed to produce IL-10 after Mycobaterium tuberculosis infection, suggesting that an absent antiinflammatory feedback loop accounted for granulocyte-dominated pathology, uncontrolled bacterial replication, and, ultimately, death of infected Card9−/− mice. Our data provide evidence that deregulated innate responses trigger excessive lung inflammation and demonstrate a pivotal role of CARD9 signaling in autonomous innate host defense against tuberculosis.

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          Blood monocytes consist of two principal subsets with distinct migratory properties.

          Peripheral blood monocytes are a heterogeneous population of circulating leukocytes. Using a murine adoptive transfer system to probe monocyte homing and differentiation in vivo, we identified two functional subsets among murine blood monocytes: a short-lived CX(3)CR1(lo)CCR2(+)Gr1(+) subset that is actively recruited to inflamed tissues and a CX(3)CR1(hi)CCR2(-)Gr1(-) subset characterized by CX(3)CR1-dependent recruitment to noninflamed tissues. Both subsets have the potential to differentiate into dendritic cells in vivo. The level of CX(3)CR1 expression also defines the two major human monocyte subsets, the CD14(+)CD16(-) and CD14(lo)CD16(+) monocytes, which share phenotype and homing potential with the mouse subsets. These findings raise the potential for novel therapeutic strategies in inflammatory diseases.
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            Recognition of microorganisms and activation of the immune response.

            The mammalian immune system has innate and adaptive components, which cooperate to protect the host against microbial infections. The innate immune system consists of functionally distinct 'modules' that evolved to provide different forms of protection against pathogens. It senses pathogens through pattern-recognition receptors, which trigger the activation of antimicrobial defences and stimulate the adaptive immune response. The adaptive immune system, in turn, activates innate effector mechanisms in an antigen-specific manner. The connections between the various immune components are not fully understood, but recent progress brings us closer to an integrated view of the immune system and its function in host defence.
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              Immunology of tuberculosis.

              The resurgence of tuberculosis worldwide has intensified research efforts directed at examining the host defense and pathogenic mechanisms operative in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. This review summarizes our current understanding of the host immune response, with emphasis on the roles of macrophages, T cells, and the cytokine/chemokine network in engendering protective immunity. Specifically, we summarize studies addressing the ability of the organism to survive within macrophages by controlling phagolysosome fusion. The recent studies on Toll-like receptors and the impact on the innate response to M. tuberculosis are discussed. We also focus on the induction, specificity, and effector functions of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, and the roles of cytokines and chemokines in the induction and effector functions of the immune response. Presentation of mycobacterial antigens by MHC class I, class II, and CD1 as well as the implications of these molecules sampling various compartments of the cell for presentation to T cells are discussed. Increased attention to this disease and the integration of animal models and human studies have afforded us a greater understanding of tuberculosis and the steps necessary to combat this infection. The pace of this research must be maintained if we are to realize an effective vaccine in the next decades.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ]Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, Department of Immunology, 10117 Berlin, Germany
                [2 ]III. Medizinische Klinik, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, 81675 München, Germany
                Author notes
                CORRESPONDENCE Stefan H.E. Kaufmann: kaufmann@ 123456mpiib-berlin.mpg.de

                V. Yeremeev's present address is Dept. of Immunology, Central Institute for Tuberculosis, 107564 Moscow, Russia.

                O. Gross's present address is Dept. of Biochemistry, University of Lausanne, 1066 Epalinges, Switzerland.

                Journal
                J Exp Med
                J. Exp. Med
                jem
                The Journal of Experimental Medicine
                The Rockefeller University Press
                0022-1007
                1540-9538
                12 April 2010
                : 207
                : 4
                : 777-792
                20351059
                2856020
                20090067
                10.1084/jem.20090067
                © 2010 Dorhoi et al.

                This article is distributed under the terms of an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike–No Mirror Sites license for the first six months after the publication date (see http://www.rupress.org/terms). After six months it is available under a Creative Commons License (Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported license, as described at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/).

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