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Acute cold hypersensitivity characteristically induced by oxaliplatin is caused by the enhanced responsiveness of TRPA1 in mice

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      Abstract

      Background

      Oxaliplatin, a platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent, causes an unusual acute peripheral neuropathy. Oxaliplatin-induced acute peripheral neuropathy appears in almost all patients rapidly after infusion, and is triggered or exacerbated by cold, while its mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, the involvement of thermosensitive transient receptor potential channels (TRPA1, TRPM8 and TRPV1) in oxaliplatin-induced acute hypersensitivity was investigated in mice.

      Results

      A single intraperitoneal administration of oxaliplatin (1–10 mg/kg) induced cold but not mechanical hypersensitivity within 2 h in a dose-dependent manner. Infusion of the oxaliplatin metabolite, oxalate (1.7 mg/kg), also induced acute cold hypersensitivity, while another platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent, cisplatin (5 mg/kg), or the non-platinum-containing chemotherapeutic agent, paclitaxel (6 mg/kg) failed to induce mechanical or cold hypersensitivity. The oxaliplatin-induced acute cold hypersensitivity was abolished by the TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 (100 mg/kg) and by TRPA1 deficiency. The nocifensive behaviors evoked by intraplantar injections of allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC; TRPA1 agonist) were significantly enhanced in mice treated for 2 h with oxaliplatin (1–10 mg/kg) in a dose-dependent manner, while capsaicin (TRPV1 agonist)-evoked nocifensive behaviors were not affected. Menthol (TRPM8/TRPA1 agonist)-evoked nocifensive-like behaviors were also enhanced by oxaliplatin pretreatment, which were inhibited by TRPA1 deficiency. Similarly, oxalate enhanced, but neither cisplatin nor paclitaxel affected AITC-evoked nocifensive behaviors. Pretreatment of cultured mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons with oxaliplatin (30–300 μM) for 1, 2, or 4 h significantly increased the number of AITC-sensitive neurons in a concentration-dependent manner whereas there was no change in the number of menthol- or capsaicin-sensitive neurons.

      Conclusions

      Taken together, these results suggest that a brief treatment with oxaliplatin or its metabolite oxalate is sufficient to enhance the responsiveness of TRPA1 but not that of TRPM8 and TRPV1 expressed by DRG neurons, which may contribute to the characteristic acute peripheral neuropathy induced by oxaliplatin.

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      Most cited references 52

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      The capsaicin receptor: a heat-activated ion channel in the pain pathway.

      Capsaicin, the main pungent ingredient in 'hot' chilli peppers, elicits a sensation of burning pain by selectively activating sensory neurons that convey information about noxious stimuli to the central nervous system. We have used an expression cloning strategy based on calcium influx to isolate a functional cDNA encoding a capsaicin receptor from sensory neurons. This receptor is a non-selective cation channel that is structurally related to members of the TRP family of ion channels. The cloned capsaicin receptor is also activated by increases in temperature in the noxious range, suggesting that it functions as a transducer of painful thermal stimuli in vivo.
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        Quantitative assessment of tactile allodynia in the rat paw.

         J Pogrel,  F. Bach,  T L Yaksh (1994)
        We applied and validated a quantitative allodynia assessment technique, using a recently developed rat surgical neuropathy model wherein nocifensive behaviors are evoked by light touch to the paw. Employing von Frey hairs from 0.41 to 15.1 g, we first characterized the percent response at each stimulus intensity. A smooth log-linear relationship was observed, with a median 50% threshold at 1.97 g (95% confidence limits, 1.12-3.57 g). Subsequently, we applied a paradigm using stimulus oscillation around the response threshold, which allowed more rapid, efficient measurements. Median 50% threshold by this up-down method was 2.4 g (1.81-2.76). Correlation coefficient between the two methods was 0.91. In neuropathic rats, good intra- and inter-observer reproducibility was found for the up-down paradigm; some variability was seen in normal rats, attributable to extensive testing. Thresholds in a sizable group of neuropathic rats showed insignificant variability over 20 days. After 50 days, 61% still met strict neuropathy criteria, using survival analysis. Threshold measurement using the up-down paradigm, in combination with the neuropathic pain model, represents a powerful tool for analyzing the effects of manipulations of the neuropathic pain state.
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          Leucovorin and fluorouracil with or without oxaliplatin as first-line treatment in advanced colorectal cancer.

          In a previous study of treatment for advanced colorectal cancer, the LV5FU2 regimen, comprising leucovorin (LV) plus bolus and infusional fluorouracil (5FU) every 2 weeks, was superior to the standard North Central Cancer Treatment Group/Mayo Clinic 5-day bolus 5FU/LV regimen. This phase III study investigated the effect of combining oxaliplatin with LV5FU2, with progression-free survival as the primary end point. Four hundred twenty previously untreated patients with measurable disease were randomized to receive a 2-hour infusion of LV (200 mg/m(2)/d) followed by a 5FU bolus (400 mg/m(2)/d) and 22-hour infusion (600 mg/m(2)/d) for 2 consecutive days every 2 weeks, either alone or together with oxaliplatin 85 mg/m(2) as a 2-hour infusion on day 1. Patients allocated to oxaliplatin plus LV5FU2 had significantly longer progression-free survival (median, 9.0 v 6.2 months; P =.0003) and better response rate (50.7% v 22.3%; P =.0001) when compared with the control arm. The improvement in overall survival did not reach significance (median, 16.2 v 14.7 months; P =. 12). LV5FU2 plus oxaliplatin gave higher frequencies of National Cancer Institute common toxicity criteria grade 3/4 neutropenia (41. 7% v 5.3% of patients), grade 3/4 diarrhea (11.9% v 5.3%), and grade 3 neurosensory toxicity (18.2% v 0%), but this did not result in impairment of quality of life (QoL). Survival without disease progression or deterioration in global health status was longer in patients allocated to oxaliplatin treatment (P =.004). The LV5FU2-oxaliplatin combination seems beneficial as first-line therapy in advanced colorectal cancer, demonstrating a prolonged progression-free survival with acceptable tolerability and maintenance of QoL.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, 46-29 Yoshida-Shimoadachi-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan
            Contributors
            Journal
            Mol Pain
            Mol Pain
            Molecular Pain
            BioMed Central
            1744-8069
            2012
            28 July 2012
            : 8
            : 55
            22839205
            3495669
            1744-8069-8-55
            10.1186/1744-8069-8-55
            Copyright ©2012 Zhao et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

            This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

            Categories
            Research

            Molecular medicine

            numbness, pain, peripheral neuropathy, chemotherapy, sensitization, trp channels

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