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Support Immersion Endoscopy in Post-Extraction Alveolar Bone Chambers: A New Window for Microscopic Bone Imaging In Vivo

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      Using an endoscopic approach, small intraoral bone chambers, which are routinely obtained during tooth extraction and implantation, provide visual in vivo access to internal bone structures. The aim of the present paper is to present a new method to quantify bone microstructure and vascularisation in vivo. Ten extraction sockets and 6 implant sites in 14 patients (6 men / 8 women) were examined by support immersion endoscopy (SIE). After tooth extraction or implant site preparation, microscopic bone analysis (MBA) was performed using short distance SIE video sequences of representative bone areas for off-line analysis with ImageJ. Quantitative assessment of the microstructure and vascularisation of the bone in dental extraction and implant sites in vivo was performed using ImageJ. MBA revealed bone morphology details such as unmineralised and mineralised areas, vascular canals and the presence of bleeding through vascular canals. Morphometric examination revealed that there was more unmineralised bone and less vascular canal area in the implant sites than in the extraction sockets.

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      Most cited references 27

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            Author and article information

            [1 ]Department Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Georg-August-University Hospital, Göttingen, Germany
            [2 ]Department of Molecular Biology of Neuronal Signals, Max Planck Institute of Experimental Medicine, Göttingen, Germany
            [3 ]Research Centre in Dental Sciences (CICO), Dental School, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco, Chile
            University of Zaragoza, SPAIN
            Author notes

            Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

            Conceived and designed the experiments: EW LM BV. Performed the experiments: EW LM BV. Analyzed the data: EW LM BV. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: EW LM BV SW. Wrote the paper: EW LM BV.

            Role: Editor
            PLoS One
            PLoS ONE
            PLoS ONE
            Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
            29 December 2015
            : 10
            : 12
            © 2015 Engelke et al

            This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited

            Figures: 2, Tables: 1, Pages: 9
            The authors have no support or funding to report.
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