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      “Languaging” tacit judgment in formal postgraduate assessment: the documentation of ad hoc and summative entrustment decisions

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      1 , , 2

      Perspectives on Medical Education

      Bohn Stafleu van Loghum

      Entrustment, Tacit judgment, Assessment, Language

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          Abstract

          While subjective judgment is recognized by the health professions education literature as important to assessment, it remains difficult to carve out a formally recognized role in assessment practices for personal experiences, gestalts, and gut feelings. Assessment tends to rely on documentary artefacts—like the forms, standards, and policies brought in under competency-based medical education, for example—to support accountability and fairness. But judgment is often tacit in nature and can be more challenging to surface in explicit (and particularly written) form. What is needed is a nuanced approach to the incorporation of judgment in assessment such that it is neither in danger of being suppressed by an overly rigorous insistence on documentation nor uncritically sanctioned by the defense that it resides in a black box and that we must simply trust the expertise of assessors. The concept of entrustment represents an attempt to effect such a balance within current competency frameworks by surfacing judgments about the degree of supervision learners need to care safely for patients. While there is relatively little published data about its implementation as yet, one readily manifest variation in the uptake of entrustment relates to the distinction between ad hoc and summative forms. The ways in which these forms are languaged, together with their intended purposes and guidelines for their use, point to directions for more focused empirical inquiry that can inform current and future uptake of entrustment in competency-based medical education and the responsible and meaningful inclusion of judgment in assessment more generally.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Competency-based medical education: theory to practice.

          Although competency-based medical education (CBME) has attracted renewed interest in recent years among educators and policy-makers in the health care professions, there is little agreement on many aspects of this paradigm. We convened a unique partnership - the International CBME Collaborators - to examine conceptual issues and current debates in CBME. We engaged in a multi-stage group process and held a consensus conference with the aim of reviewing the scholarly literature of competency-based medical education, identifying controversies in need of clarification, proposing definitions and concepts that could be useful to educators across many jurisdictions, and exploring future directions for this approach to preparing health professionals. In this paper, we describe the evolution of CBME from the outcomes movement in the 20th century to a renewed approach that, focused on accountability and curricular outcomes and organized around competencies, promotes greater learner-centredness and de-emphasizes time-based curricular design. In this paradigm, competence and related terms are redefined to emphasize their multi-dimensional, dynamic, developmental, and contextual nature. CBME therefore has significant implications for the planning of medical curricula and will have an important impact in reshaping the enterprise of medical education. We elaborate on this emerging CBME approach and its related concepts, and invite medical educators everywhere to enter into further dialogue about the promise and the potential perils of competency-based medical curricula for the 21st century.
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            Validity in work-based assessment: expanding our horizons.

            Although work-based assessments (WBA) may come closest to assessing habitual performance, their use for summative purposes is not undisputed. Most criticism of WBA stems from approaches to validity consistent with the quantitative psychometric framework. However, there is increasing research evidence that indicates that the assumptions underlying the predictive, deterministic framework of psychometrics may no longer hold. In this discussion paper we argue that meaningfulness and appropriateness of current validity evidence can be called into question and that we need alternative strategies to assessment and validity inquiry that build on current theories of learning and performance in complex and dynamic workplace settings.
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              Assessment in the post-psychometric era: learning to love the subjective and collective.

               Brian Hodges (2013)
              Since the 1970s, assessment of competence in the health professions has been dominated by a discourse of psychometrics that emphasizes the conversion of human behaviors to numbers and prioritizes high-stakes, point-in-time sampling, and standardization. There are many advantages to this approach, including increased fairness to test takers; however, some limitations of overemphasis on this paradigm are evident. Further, two shifts are underway that have significant consequences for assessment. First, as clinical practice becomes more interprofessional and team-based, the locus of competence is shifting from individuals to teams. Second, expensive, high-stakes final examinations are not well suited for longitudinal assessment in workplaces. The result is a need to consider assessment methods that are subjective and collective.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                anneke.vanenk@ubc.ca
                Journal
                Perspect Med Educ
                Perspect Med Educ
                Perspectives on Medical Education
                Bohn Stafleu van Loghum (Houten )
                2212-2761
                2212-277X
                15 September 2020
                15 September 2020
                December 2020
                : 9
                : 6
                : 373-378
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.17091.3e, ISNI 0000 0001 2288 9830, Centre for Health Education Scholarship, , University of British Columbia, ; Vancouver, Canada
                [2 ]GRID grid.7692.a, ISNI 0000000090126352, Centre for Research and Development of Education, , University Medical Centre Utrecht, ; Utrecht, The Netherlands
                Article
                616
                10.1007/s40037-020-00616-x
                7718349
                32930984
                f2fbc451-7045-46b0-8d31-59a8eda692cd
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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                Eye-Opener
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                © The Author(s) 2020

                Education

                entrustment, tacit judgment, assessment, language

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