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      Hidden species within the genus Ocys Stephens: the widespread species O. harpaloides (Audinet-Serville) and O. tachysoides (Antoine) (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Bembidiini)

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      Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          Beetles previously considered to be Ocys harpaloides (Audinet-Serville) from northern Africa, Spain, France, the United Kingdom, France, and Belgium belong to two species. These species can be distinguished using DNA sequences of 28S rDNA, 18S rDNA, COI, CAD, and topoisomerase I. A key, diagnoses, and images are provided to enable identification of specimens based upon characteristics of male and female genitalia, as well as microsculpture and other external structures. Through examination of the holotype of Bembidium harpaloides v. tachysoides Antoine, as well as designation of lectotypes of Bembidion harpaloides Audinet-Serville and Ocys melanocephalus Stephens, and designation of a neotype for Tachis rufescens Guérin-Ménéville, the valid names of the two species were determined to be Ocys harpaloides and Ocys tachysoides (Antoine).

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          Most cited references 9

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          Evaluating nuclear protein-coding genes for phylogenetic utility in beetles.

          Although nuclear protein-coding genes have proven broadly useful for phylogenetic inference, relatively few such genes are regularly employed in studies of Coleoptera, the most diverse insect order. We increase the number of loci available for beetle systematics by developing protocols for three genes previously unused in beetles (alpha-spectrin, RNA polymerase II and topoisomerase I) and by refining protocols for five genes already in use (arginine kinase, CAD, enolase, PEPCK and wingless). We evaluate the phylogenetic performance of each gene in a Bayesian framework against a presumably known test phylogeny. The test phylogeny covers 31 beetle specimens and two outgroup taxa of varying age, including three of the four extant beetle suborders and a denser sampling in Adephaga and in the carabid genus Bembidion. All eight genes perform well for Cenozoic divergences and accurately separate closely related species within Bembidion, but individual genes differ markedly in accuracy over the older Mesozoic and Permian divergences. The concatenated data reconstruct the test phylogeny with high support in both Bayesian and parsimony analyses, indicating that combining data from multiple nuclear loci will be a fruitful approach for assembling the beetle tree of life.
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            Unreliable mtDNA data due to nuclear insertions: a cautionary tale from analysis of humans and other great apes.

            Analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequence variation has been used extensively to study the evolutionary relationships of individuals and populations, both within and across species. So ubiquitous and easily acquired are mtDNA data that it has been suggested that such data could serve as a taxonomic 'barcode' for an objective species classification scheme. However, there are technical pitfalls associated with the acquisition of mtDNA data. One problem is the presence of translocated pieces of mtDNA in the nuclear genome of many taxa that may be mistaken for authentic organellar mtDNA. We assessed the extent to which such 'numt' sequences may pose an overlooked problem in analyses of mtDNA from humans and apes. Using long-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR), we generated necessarily authentic mtDNA sequences for comparison with sequences obtained using typical methods for a segment of the mtDNA control region in humans, chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas and orangutans. Results revealed that gorillas are notable for having such a variety of numt sequences bearing high similarity to authentic mtDNA that any analysis of mtDNA using standard approaches is rendered impossible. Studies on humans, chimpanzees, bonobos or orangutans are apparently less problematic. One implication is that explicit measures need to be taken to authenticate mtDNA sequences in newly studied taxa or when any irregularities arise. Furthermore, some taxa may not be amenable to analysis of mtDNA variation at all.
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              GenSeq: An updated nomenclature and ranking for genetic sequences from type and non-type sources

              Abstract An improved and expanded nomenclature for genetic sequences is introduced that corresponds with a ranking of the reliability of the taxonomic identification of the source specimens. This nomenclature is an advancement of the “Genetypes” naming system, which some have been reluctant to adopt because of the use of the “type” suffix in the terminology. In the new nomenclature, genetic sequences are labeled “genseq,” followed by a reliability ranking (e.g., 1 if the sequence is from a primary type), followed by the name of the genes from which the sequences were derived (e.g., genseq-1 16S, COI). The numbered suffix provides an indication of the likely reliability of taxonomic identification of the voucher. Included in this ranking system, in descending order of taxonomic reliability, are the following: sequences from primary types – “genseq-1,” secondary types – “genseq-2,” collection-vouchered topotypes – “genseq-3,” collection-vouchered non-types – “genseq-4,” and non-types that lack specimen vouchers but have photo vouchers – “genseq-5.” To demonstrate use of the new nomenclature, we review recently published new-species descriptions in the ichthyological literature that include DNA data and apply the GenSeq nomenclature to sequences referenced in those publications. We encourage authors to adopt the GenSeq nomenclature (note capital “G” and “S” when referring to the nomenclatural program) to provide a searchable tag (e.g., “genseq”; note lowercase “g” and “s” when referring to sequences) for genetic sequences from types and other vouchered specimens. Use of the new nomenclature and ranking system will improve integration of molecular phylogenetics and biological taxonomy and enhance the ability of researchers to assess the reliability of sequence data. We further encourage authors to update sequence information on databases such as GenBank whenever nomenclatural changes are made.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift
                DEZ
                Pensoft Publishers
                1860-1324
                1435-1951
                November 30 2016
                November 30 2016
                : 63
                : 2
                : 287-301
                Article
                10.3897/dez.63.10748
                © 2016

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