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      Autoimmune hepatitis

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      Journal of Hepatology

      Elsevier BV

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          Most cited references 118

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          Three-dimensional structure of the human class II histocompatibility antigen HLA-DR1.

          The three-dimensional structure of the class II histocompatibility glycoprotein HLA-DR1 from human B-cell membranes has been determined by X-ray crystallography and is similar to that of class I HLA. Peptides are bound in an extended conformation that projects from both ends of an 'open-ended' antigen-binding groove. A prominent non-polar pocket into which an 'anchoring' peptide side chain fits is near one end of the binding groove. A dimer of the class II alpha beta heterodimers is seen in the crystal forms of HLA-DR1, suggesting class II HLA dimerization as a mechanism for initiating the cytoplasmic signalling events in T-cell activation.
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            Positional cloning of the APECED gene.

            Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type I (APS 1, also called APECED) is an autosomal-recessive disorder that maps to human chromosome 21q22.3 between markers D21S49 and D21S171 by linkage studies. We have isolated a novel gene from this region, AIRE (autoimmune regulator), which encodes a protein containing motifs suggestive of a transcription factor including two zinc-finger (PHD-finger) motifs, a proline-rich region and three LXXLL motifs. Two mutations, a C-->T substitution that changes the Arg 257 (CGA) to a stop codon (TGA) and an A-->G substitution that changes the Lys 83 (AAG) to a Glu codon (GAG), were found in this novel gene in Swiss and Finnish APECED patients. The Arg257stop (R257X) is the predominant mutation in Finnish APECED patients, accounting for 10/12 alleles studied. These results indicate that this gene is responsible for the pathogenesis of APECED. The identification of the gene defective in APECED should facilitate the genetic diagnosis and potential treatment of the disease and further enhance our general understanding of the mechanisms underlying autoimmune diseases.
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              Classification of chronic hepatitis: diagnosis, grading and staging.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Hepatology
                Journal of Hepatology
                Elsevier BV
                01688278
                January 2000
                January 2000
                : 32
                :
                : 181-197
                Article
                10.1016/S0168-8278(00)80425-0
                © 2000

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