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      Therapeutic effect of intranasal evaporative cooling in patients with migraine: a pilot study


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          Cryotherapy is the most common non-pharmacological pain-relieving method. The aim of this pilot study was to ascertain whether intranasal evaporative cooling may be an effective intervention in an acute migraine attack. Studies have previously demonstrated effectiveness of a variety of cryotherapy approaches. Intranasal evaporative cooling due to vascular anatomy, allows the transfer of venous blood from nasal and paranasal mucous membranes to the dura mater, thereby providing an excellent anatomical basis for the cooling processes.


          We conducted a prospective, open-label, observational, pilot study. Twenty-eight patients who satisfied the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD 2) diagnostic criteria for migraine were recruited. A total of 20 treatments were administered in 15 patients. All patients provided pain severity scores and migraine-associated symptoms severity scores (based on a 0–10 visual analogue scale, [VAS]).


          Out of the 20 treatments, intranasal evaporative cooling rendered patients’ pain and symptoms free immediately after treatment, in 8 of the treatments (40%), a further 10 treatments (50%) resulted in partial pain relief (headache reduced from severe or moderate to mild) and partial symptoms relief. At 2 hours, 9 treatments (45%) provided full pain and symptoms relief, with a further 9 treatments (45%) resulting in partial pain and symptoms relief. At 24 hours, 10 treatments (50%) resulted in patients reporting pain and symptom freedom and 3 (15%) provided partial pain relief. In summary 13 patients (87%) had benefit from the treatment within 2 hours that was sustained at 24 hours.


          Intranasal evaporative cooling gave considerable benefit to patients with migraine, improving headache severity and migraine-associated symptoms. A further randomised, placebo controlled, double blinded, parallel clinical trial is required to further investigate the potential of this application.

          Trial registration

          Clinicaltrials.gov registered trial, ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01898455.

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          Most cited references 29

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          An introduction to TRP channels.

          The aim of this review is to provide a basic framework for understanding the function of mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, particularly as they have been elucidated in heterologous expression systems. Mammalian TRP channel proteins form six-transmembrane (6-TM) cation-permeable channels that may be grouped into six subfamilies on the basis of amino acid sequence homology (TRPC, TRPV, TRPM, TRPA, TRPP, and TRPML). Selected functional properties of TRP channels from each subfamily are summarized in this review. Although a single defining characteristic of TRP channel function has not yet emerged, TRP channels may be generally described as calcium-permeable cation channels with polymodal activation properties. By integrating multiple concomitant stimuli and coupling their activity to downstream cellular signal amplification via calcium permeation and membrane depolarization, TRP channels appear well adapted to function in cellular sensation. Our review of recent literature implicating TRP channels in neuronal growth cone steering suggests that TRPs may function more widely in cellular guidance and chemotaxis. The TRP channel gene family and its nomenclature, the encoded proteins and alternatively spliced variants, and the rapidly expanding pharmacology of TRP channels are summarized in online supplemental material.
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            Migraine pathophysiology: anatomy of the trigeminovascular pathway and associated neurological symptoms, cortical spreading depression, sensitization, and modulation of pain.

            Scientific evidence supports the notion that migraine pathophysiology involves inherited alteration of brain excitability, intracranial arterial dilatation, recurrent activation, and sensitization of the trigeminovascular pathway, and consequential structural and functional changes in genetically susceptible individuals. Evidence of altered brain excitability emerged from clinical and preclinical investigation of sensory auras, ictal and interictal hypersensitivity to visual, auditory, and olfactory stimulation, and reduced activation of descending inhibitory pain pathways. Data supporting the activation and sensitization of the trigeminovascular system include the progressive development of cephalic and whole-body cutaneous allodynia during a migraine attack. In addition, structural and functional alterations include the presence of subcortical white mater lesions, thickening of cortical areas involved in processing sensory information, and cortical neuroplastic changes induced by cortical spreading depression. Here, we review recent anatomical data on the trigeminovascular pathway and its activation by cortical spreading depression, a novel understanding of the neural substrate of migraine-type photophobia, and modulation of the trigeminovascular pathway by the brainstem, hypothalamus and cortex. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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              Intra-arrest transnasal evaporative cooling: a randomized, prehospital, multicenter study (PRINCE: Pre-ROSC IntraNasal Cooling Effectiveness).

              Transnasal evaporative cooling has sufficient heat transfer capacity for effective intra-arrest cooling and improves survival in swine. The aim of this study was to determine the safety, feasibility, and cooling efficacy of prehospital transnasal cooling in humans and to explore its effects on neurologically intact survival to hospital discharge. Witnessed cardiac arrest patients with a treatment interval

                Author and article information

                J Headache Pain
                J Headache Pain
                The Journal of Headache and Pain
                Springer Milan (Milan )
                26 January 2015
                26 January 2015
                : 16
                [ ]Neurology Department, Cumbria Partnership NHS Trust, Penrith, Cumbria UK
                [ ]Institute of Neurology and The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London, UK
                [ ]BeneChill International GmbH, Fritz-Vomfelde-Strasse 34, 40547 Düsseldorf, Germany
                © Vanderpol et al.; licensee Springer. 2015

                This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited.

                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2015

                Anesthesiology & Pain management

                intranasal cooling, migraine


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