Nanomaterials have been prepared over a wide range of length scales from nanoscopic objects to bulk structural materials. Recent investigations have been focused on the regulation and control of nanoscopic structures for the modulation of the properties of even macroscopic objects. As an emerging concept, nanoarchitectonics has been proposed as a technology system to be used for arranging nanoscale structural units--i.e., the nanostructure unit as a group of atoms or molecules--in a predesignated configuration. In this review, we summarize recent research on nanomaterials including design, synthesis, fabrication and functionalization based on the nanoarchitectonics concept. Examples are roughly classified according to their dimensionalities: (i) OD nanomaterials (quantum dots, nanocrystals, nanoparticles and nanospheres); (ii) 1D nanomaterials (nanorods, nanowires, nanobelts, nanowhiskers and nanotubes), (iii) 2D nanomaterials (nanosheets, graphene, self-assemble monolayers, Langmuir-Blodgett films, layer-by-layer assemblies and interfacial structures), and (iv) 3D nanomaterials (bulk materials with nanoscale structural control, nanohybrids, nanocomposites and mesoporous materials).