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      Recent Advances in Cellulose-Based Biosensors for Medical Diagnosis

      1 , 2 , *

      Biosensors

      MDPI

      cellulose, optical, electrochemical, bio-molecules, diagnostic tools

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          Abstract

          Cellulose has attracted much interest, particularly in medical applications such as advanced biosensing devices. Cellulose could provide biosensors with enhanced biocompatibility, biodegradability and non-toxicity, which could be useful for biosensors. Thus, they play a significant role in environmental monitoring, medical diagnostic tools, forensic science, and foodstuff processing safety applications. This review summarizes the recent developments in cellulose-based biosensors targeting the molecular design principles toward medical detection purposes. The recognition/detection mechanisms of cellulose-based biosensors demonstrate two major classes of measurable signal generation, including optical and electrochemical cellulosic biosensors. As a result of their simplicity, high sensitivity, and low cost, cellulose-based optical biosensors are particularly of great interest for including label-free and label-driven (fluorescent and colorimetric) biosensors. There have been numerous types of cellulose substrates employed in biosensors, including several cellulose derivatives, nano-cellulose, bacterial cellulose, paper, gauzes, and hydrogels. These kinds of cellulose-based biosensors were discussed according to their preparation procedures and detection principle. Cellulose and its derivatives with their distinctive chemical structure have demonstrated to be versatile materials, affording a high-quality platform for accomplishing the immobilization process of biologically active molecules into biosensors. Cellulose-based biosensors exhibit a variety of desirable characteristics, such as sensitivity, accuracy, convenience, quick response, and low-cost. For instance, cellulose paper-based biosensors are characterized as being low-cost and easy to operate, while nano-cellulose biosensors are characterized as having a good dispersion, high absorbance capacity, and large surface area. Cellulose and its derivatives have been promising materials in biosensors which could be employed to monitor various bio-molecules, such as urea, glucose, cell, amino acid, protein, lactate, hydroquinone, gene, and cholesterol. The future interest will focus on the design and construction of multifunctional, miniaturized, low-cost, environmentally friendly, and integrated biosensors. Thus, the production of cellulose-based biosensors is very important.

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          Most cited references 138

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          Microfibrillated cellulose and new nanocomposite materials: a review

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            Wearable biosensors for healthcare monitoring

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              Electrochemical tattoo biosensors for real-time noninvasive lactate monitoring in human perspiration.

              The present work describes the first example of real-time noninvasive lactate sensing in human perspiration during exercise events using a flexible printed temporary-transfer tattoo electrochemical biosensor that conforms to the wearer's skin. The new skin-worn enzymatic biosensor exhibits chemical selectivity toward lactate with linearity up to 20 mM and demonstrates resiliency against continuous mechanical deformation expected from epidermal wear. The device was applied successfully to human subjects for real-time continuous monitoring of sweat lactate dynamics during prolonged cycling exercise. The resulting temporal lactate profiles reflect changes in the production of sweat lactate upon varying the exercise intensity. Such skin-worn metabolite biosensors could lead to useful insights into physical performance and overall physiological status, hence offering considerable promise for diverse sport, military, and biomedical applications.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Biosensors (Basel)
                Biosensors (Basel)
                biosensors
                Biosensors
                MDPI
                2079-6374
                17 June 2020
                June 2020
                : 10
                : 6
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Cellulose and Paper Department, National Research Centre, Cairo 12622, Egypt; samirki@ 123456yahoo.com
                [2 ]Dyeing, Printing and Auxiliaries Department, National Research Centre, Cairo 12622, Egypt
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: tkhattab@ 123456kent.edu
                Article
                biosensors-10-00067
                10.3390/bios10060067
                7345568
                32560377
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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