To establish normal insulin binding criteria, we studied the binding of insulin to erythrocytes from normal subjects of different ages. Insulin binding to cord erythrocytes and to erythrocytes from infants aged 2–7 days was significantly higher at tracer and physiological insulin concentrations than was binding to cells from children aged 1–15 years and adults. In infants aged 1–12 months the maximum insulin binding to erythrocytes was significantly higher than that to erythrocytes from children, and in addition, it correlated negatively with age. An increase in receptor concentration was found in cord erythrocytes whereas an increased receptor affinity for insulin was found in erythrocytes from infants. Insulin binding characteristics in erythrocytes from prepubertal and pubertal children were basically similar to those in women. Erythrocytes from men bound significantly higher amounts of insulin than did those from women. This difference was associated with changes in receptor affinity for insulin. There was no correlation between the insulin binding characteristics and the circulating concentration of insulin or C-peptide. The increased erythrocyte insulin binding at birth persisted over the neonatal period. There was an overall negative correlation between the maximum insulin binding and age in the subjects studied, but the major decrease in erythrocyte insulin binding occurred during the first year of life past the neonatal period. These observations stress the importance of using age-matched controls in studies on erythrocyte insulin binding in disease states.