The space adaptation syndrome is one of the more vexing problems confronted by our nation's astronauts during their journeys. This syndrome may be a variant of motion sickness, although this possibility has been questioned. Physostigmine, a centrally active cholinesterase inhibitor which increases brain acetylcholine, was found to cause a motion sickness-like syndrome--in psychiatric patients and normals--including nausea, emesis, malaise, dysphoria, increases in serum ACTH, beta-endorphin, cortisol, and prolactin, Neostigmine, a non-centrally acting cholinesterase inhibitor, and saline placebo caused no such effects. The above effects closely parallel those of motion sickness. Thus, the effects of physostigmine may be a convenient model for screening for treatments for motion sickness or space adaptation syndrome, or for predicting who will develop these syndromes.