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Opportunities for therapeutic antibodies directed at G-protein-coupled receptors

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      Abstract

      G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are key drug targets. In this article, Marshall and colleagues discuss the progress made towards generating GPCR-targeting antibodies, including which antigen formats and antibody platforms have been most successful. They review the current pipeline and outline outstanding challenges in antibody generation.

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      Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity.

       G Köhler,  C Milstein (1975)
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        How many drug targets are there?

        For the past decade, the number of molecular targets for approved drugs has been debated. Here, we reconcile apparently contradictory previous reports into a comprehensive survey, and propose a consensus number of current drug targets for all classes of approved therapeutic drugs. One striking feature is the relatively constant historical rate of target innovation (the rate at which drugs against new targets are launched); however, the rate of developing drugs against new families is significantly lower. The recent approval of drugs that target protein kinases highlights two additional trends: an emerging realization of the importance of polypharmacology, and also the power of a gene-family-led approach in generating novel and important therapies.
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          Structure of a nanobody-stabilized active state of the β2 adrenoceptor

          G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) exhibit a spectrum of functional behaviors in response to natural and synthetic ligands. Recent crystal structures provide insights into inactive states of several GPCRs. Efforts to obtain an agonist-bound active-state GPCR structure have proven difficult due to the inherent instability of this state in the absence of a G protein. We generated a camelid antibody fragment (nanobody) to the human β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) that exhibits G protein-like behavior, and obtained an agonist-bound, active-state crystal structure of the receptor-nanobody complex. Comparison with the inactive β2AR structure reveals subtle changes in the binding pocket; however, these small changes are associated with an 11Å outward movement of the cytoplasmic end of transmembrane segment 6, and rearrangements of transmembrane segments 5 and 7 that are remarkably similar to those observed in opsin, an active form of rhodopsin. This structure provides insights into the process of agonist binding and activation.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Nature Reviews Drug Discovery
            Nat Rev Drug Discov
            Springer Nature
            1474-1776
            1474-1784
            July 14 2017
            July 14 2017
            :
            :
            10.1038/nrd.2017.91
            © 2017
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