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      Electron-Beam Computerized Tomography Correlates with Coronary Angiogram in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

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          Background/Aim: Electron-beam computerized tomography (EBCT) is able to noninvasively quantify coronary artery calcification (CAC). Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients frequently have CAC, and clinicians are puzzled regarding the clinical significance of this finding and the diagnostic accuracy of coronary EBCT in CKD. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation in CKD patients between CAC measured by EBCT and 50% stenosis determined by coronary angiography (CA), the gold standard to identify atherosclerotic lesions. Method: We recruited 37 patients with CKD from a single institution and compared their coronary EBCT and CA results using standard statistical analysis. Results: Patients with at least one vessel with ≧50% stenosis by CA had higher mean CAC scores [2,407.9 ± (SD) 3,165.3 vs. 227 ± 443.4; p < 0.001] and higher median CAC scores (1,052 vs. 25.8; p < 0.001) as compared with those having no stenosis ≧50%. The sensitivity was 85.7%, and the specificity 82.6% using 50% stenosis as the definition for coronary artery disease and using a CAC score of 400 as a cutoff value for the EBCT results. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.84. The diagnostic accuracy (proportion of correct results) was 83.8%. The negative predictive value was 90.5%. The receiver operating characteristic curve suggests that the optimal cutoff value for CAC scores in our cohort is 315.9, increasing the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve to 0.91. The total coronary artery stenosis was significantly associated with the CAC score (p = 0.01). Conclusions: EBCT has a very good predictive value for obstructive coronary artery disease. EBCT could be used as a screening tool in CKD patients with a low-to-intermediate risk for coronary artery disease.

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          Electron beam computed tomography in the evaluation of cardiac calcification in chronic dialysis patients.

          The purpose of this study was to assess the value of electron beam computed tomography in the detection of cardiac calcifications in coronaries and valves of dialysis patients and to determine the rate at which calcification progresses. Forty-nine chronic hemodialysis patients aged 28 to 74 years were compared with 102 non-dialysis patients aged 32 to 73 years with documented or suspected coronary artery disease, all of whom underwent coronary angiography. We used high-resolution electron beam computed tomography scanning to make 30 axial slices with a distance of 3 mm between each slice. The number of calcifications, the surface area, and the average and highest density values were measured. We calculated a quantitative coronary artery calcium score and assessed calcification of mitral and aortic valves. In dialysis patients, the measurements were repeated after 12 months. The coronary artery calcium score was from 2.5-fold to fivefold higher in the dialysis patients than in the non-dialysis patients. Hypertensive dialysis patients had higher calcium scores than non-hypertensive dialysis patients (P < 0.05). A stepwise, multiple regression analysis confirmed the importance of age and hypertension. No correlation between calcium, phosphate, or parathyroid hormone values and the coronary calcium score was identified; however, the calcium score was inversely correlated with bone mass in the dialysis patients (r = 0.47, P < 0.05). The mitral valve was calcified in 59% of dialysis patients, while the aortic valve was calcified in 55%. The coronary artery calcium score was correlated with aortic valvular, but not mitral valvular calcification. A repeat examination of the dialysis patients at an interval of 1 year showed a disturbing tendency for progression. Our data under-score the frequency and severity of coronary and valvular calcifications in dialysis patients, and illustrate the rapid progression of this calcification. Finally, they draw attention to hypertension as an important risk factor in this process.
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            Cardiac calcification in adult hemodialysis patients

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              Correlation of coronary calcification and angiographically documented stenoses in patients with suspected coronary artery disease: results of 1,764 patients.

              This study correlated the electron beam computed tomographic (EBCT) calcium scores with the results of coronary angiography in symptomatic patients in order to assess its value to predict or exclude significant coronary artery disease (CAD). Electron beam computed tomography is a sensitive method to detect coronary calcium. However, it is unclear whether it may play a role as a filter before invasive procedures in symptomatic patients. A total of 1,764 patients (1,225 men and 539 women) with suspected CAD from a single center were included in our study. All patients underwent calcium screening with EBCT (C150XP Imatron) and conventional coronary angiography. Fifty-six percent of men and 47% of women revealed significant coronary stenoses (> or =50%). Total exclusion of coronary calcium (14% of the study group) was associated with an extremely low probability of stenosis ( or =20th, > or =100th or > or =75th percentile of age groups, the sensitivity to detect stenoses decreased to 97%, 93% and 81%, respectively, in men and to 98%, 82% and 76%, respectively, in women. At the same time, the specificity increased up to 77% in men and women. There was a significant difference in coronary calcium between men and women in all age groups; however, receiver-operating characteristic curves indicated that the test can be performed with equal accuracy in all of these subgroups. Calcium screening with EBCT is a highly sensitive and moderately specific test to predict stenotic disease. Exclusion of coronary calcium defines a substantial subgroup of patients, albeit symptomatic, with a very low probability of significant stenoses.

                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                May 2007
                27 March 2007
                : 27
                : 3
                : 247-252
                Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pa., USA
                101370 Am J Nephrol 2007;27:247–252
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Tables: 1, References: 24, Pages: 6
                Original Report: Patient-Oriented, Translational Research


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