Nikolaos Lougiakis 1 , Andreas Papapetropoulos 1 , Evangelos Gikas 1 , Spyridon Toumpas 1 , Panagiotis Efentakis 1 , Rudolf Wedmann 2 , Anastasia Zoga 1 , 3 , Zhongmin Zhou 1 , Efstathios K Iliodromitis 3 , Alexios-Leandros Skaltsounis 4 , Milos R Filipovic 2 , Nicole Pouli 1 , Panagiotis Marakos 1 , Ioanna Andreadou 1
Mar 10 2016
This work deals with the design, synthesis, and evaluation of the cardioprotective properties of a number of novel hybrid compounds combining the adenine nucleus with a suitable H2S slow-releasing moiety, coupled via a stable ether bond. The H2S release rate of the hybrids and their ability to increase cGMP were estimated in vitro. The most promising derivatives 4 and 11, both containing 4-hydroxythiobenzamide moiety as H2S donor, were selected for further in vivo evaluation. Their ability to release H2S in vivo was recorded using a new fully validated UPLC-DAD method. Both compounds reduced significantly the infarct size when administered at the end of sustained ischemia. Mechanistic studies showed that they conferred enhanced cardioprotection compared to adenine or 4-hydroxythiobenzamide. They activate the PKG/PLN pathway in the ischemic myocardium, suggesting that the combination of both pharmacophores results in synergistic cardioprotective activity through the combination of both molecular pathways that trigger cardioprotection.