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      Association of genetic variations with pharmacokinetics and lipid-lowering response to atorvastatin in healthy Korean subjects

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          Abstract

          Background

          Statins are effective agents in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, but treatment response to statins varies among individuals. We analyzed multiple genetic polymorphisms and assessed pharmacokinetic and lipid-lowering responses after atorvastatin 80 mg treatment in healthy Korean individuals.

          Methods

          Atorvastatin 80 mg was given to 50 healthy Korean male volunteers. Blood samples were collected to measure plasma atorvastatin and lipid concentrations up to 48 hours after atorvastatin administration. Subjects were genotyped for 1,936 drug metabolism and transporter genetic polymorphisms using the Affymetrix DMET plus array.

          Results

          The pharmacokinetics and lipid-lowering effect of atorvastatin showed remarkable interindividual variation. Three polymorphisms in the SLCO1B1, SLCO1B3, and ABCC2 genes were associated with either the maximum concentration (C max) of atorvastatin or changes in total cholesterol or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Minor homozygotes (76.5 ng/mL) of SLCO1B1 c.-910G>A showed higher C max than heterozygotes (34.0 ng/mL) and major homozygotes (33.5 ng/mL, false discovery rate P=0.040). C max and the area under the plasma concentration curve from hour 0 to infinity (AUC ) were higher in carriers of the SLCO1B1*17 haplotype that included c.-910G>A than in noncarriers (46.1 vs 32.8 ng/mL for C max; 221.5 vs 154.2 ng/mL for AUC ). SLCO1B3 c.334G>T homozygotes (63.0 ng/mL) also showed higher C max than heterozygotes (34.7 ng/mL) and major homozygotes (31.4 ng/mL, FDR P=0.037). A nonsynonymous ABCC2 c.1249G>A was associated with small total cholesterol and LDL-C responses (0.23% and −0.70% for G/A vs −11.9% and −17.4% for G/G). The C max tended to increase according to the increase in the number of minor allele of SLCO1B1 c. −910G>A and SLCO1B3 c.334G>T.

          Conclusion

          Genetic polymorphisms in transporter genes, including SLCO1B1, SLCO1B3, and ABCC2, may influence the pharmacokinetics and lipid-lowering response to atorvastatin administration.

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          Most cited references 32

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          Clinical pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin.

          Hypercholesterolaemia is a risk factor for the development of atherosclerotic disease. Atorvastatin lowers plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels by inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase. The mean dose-response relationship has been shown to be log-linear for atorvastatin, but plasma concentrations of atorvastatin acid and its metabolites do not correlate with LDL-cholesterol reduction at a given dose. The clinical dosage range for atorvastatin is 10-80 mg/day, and it is given in the acid form. Atorvastatin acid is highly soluble and permeable, and the drug is completely absorbed after oral administration. However, atorvastatin acid is subject to extensive first-pass metabolism in the gut wall as well as in the liver, as oral bioavailability is 14%. The volume of distribution of atorvastatin acid is 381L, and plasma protein binding exceeds 98%. Atorvastatin acid is extensively metabolised in both the gut and liver by oxidation, lactonisation and glucuronidation, and the metabolites are eliminated by biliary secretion and direct secretion from blood to the intestine. In vitro, atorvastatin acid is a substrate for P-glycoprotein, organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) C and H+-monocarboxylic acid cotransporter. The total plasma clearance of atorvastatin acid is 625 mL/min and the half-life is about 7 hours. The renal route is of minor importance (<1%) for the elimination of atorvastatin acid. In vivo, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 is responsible for the formation of two active metabolites from the acid and the lactone forms of atorvastatin. Atorvastatin acid and its metabolites undergo glucuronidation mediated by uridinediphosphoglucuronyltransferases 1A1 and 1A3. Atorvastatin can be given either in the morning or in the evening. Food decreases the absorption rate of atorvastatin acid after oral administration, as indicated by decreased peak concentration and increased time to peak concentration. Women appear to have a slightly lower plasma exposure to atorvastatin for a given dose. Atorvastatin is subject to metabolism by CYP3A4 and cellular membrane transport by OATP C and P-glycoprotein, and drug-drug interactions with potent inhibitors of these systems, such as itraconazole, nelfinavir, ritonavir, cyclosporin, fibrates, erythromycin and grapefruit juice, have been demonstrated. An interaction with gemfibrozil seems to be mediated by inhibition of glucuronidation. A few case studies have reported rhabdomyolysis when the pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin have been affected by interacting drugs. Atorvastatin increases the bioavailability of digoxin, most probably by inhibition of P-glycoprotein, but does not affect the pharmacokinetics of ritonavir, nelfinavir or terfenadine.
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            Genome-Wide Association of Lipid-Lowering Response to Statins in Combined Study Populations

            Background Statins effectively lower total and plasma LDL-cholesterol, but the magnitude of decrease varies among individuals. To identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) contributing to this variation, we performed a combined analysis of genome-wide association (GWA) results from three trials of statin efficacy. Methods and Principal Findings Bayesian and standard frequentist association analyses were performed on untreated and statin-mediated changes in LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride on a total of 3932 subjects using data from three studies: Cholesterol and Pharmacogenetics (40 mg/day simvastatin, 6 weeks), Pravastatin/Inflammation CRP Evaluation (40 mg/day pravastatin, 24 weeks), and Treating to New Targets (10 mg/day atorvastatin, 8 weeks). Genotype imputation was used to maximize genomic coverage and to combine information across studies. Phenotypes were normalized within each study to account for systematic differences among studies, and fixed-effects combined analysis of the combined sample were performed to detect consistent effects across studies. Two SNP associations were assessed as having posterior probability greater than 50%, indicating that they were more likely than not to be genuinely associated with statin-mediated lipid response. SNP rs8014194, located within the CLMN gene on chromosome 14, was strongly associated with statin-mediated change in total cholesterol with an 84% probability by Bayesian analysis, and a p-value exceeding conventional levels of genome-wide significance by frequentist analysis (P = 1.8×10−8). This SNP was less significantly associated with change in LDL-cholesterol (posterior probability = 0.16, P = 4.0×10−6). Bayesian analysis also assigned a 51% probability that rs4420638, located in APOC1 and near APOE, was associated with change in LDL-cholesterol. Conclusions and Significance Using combined GWA analysis from three clinical trials involving nearly 4,000 individuals treated with simvastatin, pravastatin, or atorvastatin, we have identified SNPs that may be associated with variation in the magnitude of statin-mediated reduction in total and LDL-cholesterol, including one in the CLMN gene for which statistical evidence for association exceeds conventional levels of genome-wide significance. Trial Registration PRINCE and TNT are not registered. CAP is registered at Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00451828
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              Transporters and drug therapy: implications for drug disposition and disease.

              The efficacy of drug therapy results from the complex interplay of multiple processes that govern drug disposition and response. Most studies to date have focused on the contribution of drug-metabolizing enzymes to the drug disposition process. However, over the past decade, it has become increasingly apparent that carrier-mediated processes, or transporters, also play critical roles in the overall disposition of numerous drugs in clinical use. In addition to their roles in xenobiotic transport, drug transporters often mediate important physiologic functions via transport of endogenous substrates such as amino acids, bile acids, and hormones that are critical for maintenance of normal homeostasis. In this review we focus on the emerging field of transporter proteins in relation to the drug disposition process, with particular emphasis on clinical implications of transporters to drug-drug interactions and subsequent development of adverse effects, interindividual variability in drug response, and human disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2017
                04 April 2017
                : 11
                : 1135-1146
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Laboratory Medicine, Samsung Changwon Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Changwon, Korea
                [2 ]Clinical Research and Development, Hanmi Pharm. Co., Ltd., Seoul, Korea
                [3 ]Department of Medicine
                [4 ]Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
                [5 ]Department of Laboratory Medicine and Genetics, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Soo-Youn Lee, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Genetics, Samsung Medical Center, #50, Irwon-dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul, 135-710, Korea, Tel +82 2 3410 1834, Fax +82 2 3410 2719, Email sy117.lee@ 123456samsung.com
                Article
                dddt-11-1135
                10.2147/DDDT.S131487
                5391214
                © 2017 Woo et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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