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      Significantly Rapid Relief from Steroid-Resistant Nephrotic Syndrome by LDL Apheresis Compared with Steroid Monotherapy

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          Abstract

          Rapid amelioration of hypercholesterolemia by LDL apheresis (LDL-A) was performed for long-standing nephrotic syndrome (NS) with hyperlipidemia due to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FGS) and the clinical data and prognosis were compared between LDL-A-treated and nontreated groups. Seventeen steroid-resistant NS patients treated with LDL-A (LDL-A group) and 10 NS patients treated with steroids only (steroid-monotherapy (SM) group) were compared. Serum cholesterol and phospholipid levels were significantly lowered only in the LDL-A group (p < 0.01, respectively). The LDL-A group showed a significant decrease of urinary protein (UP, p < 0.01) and increase of serum albumin (p < 0.05). Average time needed to achieve a decrease of UP to less than nephrotic range (< 3.5 g/day) was significantly shorter in the LDL-A group than in the SM group (p < 0.01). Although this is not a prospective study, it is highly expected that a rapid improvement of hypercholesterolemia by LDL-A in steroid-resistant NS will provide more rapid relief from NS than steroid therapy alone.

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          Circulating factor associated with increased glomerular permeability to albumin in recurrent focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

          Heavy proteinuria and progressive renal injury recur after transplantation in up to 40 percent of patients with renal failure caused by idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. A circulating factor may be responsible for this recurrence. To determine whether patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis have a circulating factor capable of causing glomerular injury, we tested serum samples from 100 patients with the disorder in an in vitro assay of glomerular permeability to albumin. Of the 56 patients who had undergone renal transplantation, 33 had recurrences. Sixty-four patients, many of whom had undergone transplantation, were being treated with dialysis. Thirty-one patients with other renal diseases and nine normal subjects were also studied. The 33 patients with recurrent focal segmental glomerulosclerosis after transplantation had a higher mean (+/-SE) value for permeability to albumin (0.47+/-0.06) than the normal subjects (0.06+/-0.07) or the patients who did not have recurrences (0.14+/-0.06). After plasmapheresis in six patients with recurrences, the permeability was reduced (from 0.79+/-0.06 to 0.10+/-0.05, P = 0.008), and proteinuria was significantly decreased. Patients with corticosteroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome or with membranous nephropathy after transplantation had low levels of serum activity. The circulating factor bound to protein A and hydrophobic-interaction columns and had an apparent molecular mass of about 50 kd. A circulating factor found in some patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is associated with recurrent disease after renal transplantation and may be responsible for initiating the renal injury.
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            Effect of plasma protein adsorption on protein excretion in kidney-transplant recipients with recurrent nephrotic syndrome.

            Among patients with the idiopathic nephrotic syndrome who have focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis and undergo renal transplantation, 15 to 55 percent have recurrent nephrotic syndrome. The recurrence may be caused by a plasma factor or factors that increase glomerular permeability, because plasma exchange transiently decreases or abolishes proteinuria in some patients. We studied the effect on proteinuria of the removal of protein (mostly immunoglobulins) by adsorption onto protein A from the plasma of patients with recurrent nephrotic syndrome. Eight patients were treated with one to three cycles of two to seven 1-day sessions of protein adsorption, and the patients' urinary protein excretion was measured repeatedly. Their immunosuppressive regimens were not changed during the treatment. The adsorbed proteins were eluted from the protein A and injected into rats, and the urinary albumin excretion of the rats was measured. The protein-adsorption treatment consistently decreased urinary protein excretion by an average of 82 percent at the end of a cycle (P < 0.001). In one patient proteinuria disappeared, and in another urinary protein excretion remained below 2.5 g per day with repeated cycles of protein adsorption. In all but one patient the effect of adsorption was limited in time, with a return to the preadsorption level of protein excretion within a maximum of two months. The administration to rats of material eluted from the protein A increased urinary albumin excretion 2.9- to 4.6-fold (P < 0.001 and P = 0.005, respectively). Although protein A primarily binds immunoglobulins, the active fraction of the eluted proteins had a molecular weight below 100,000, indicating that immunoglobulin was not directly involved. Adsorption of plasma protein decreases urinary protein excretion in patients with recurrence of the nephrotic syndrome after renal transplantation. Studies of the adsorbed proteins should provide information about the mechanism of this disease.
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              Effect of vegetarian soy diet on hyperlipidaemia in nephrotic syndrome

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEF
                Nephron
                10.1159/issn.1660-8151
                Nephron
                S. Karger AG
                1660-8151
                2235-3186
                2001
                2001
                22 November 2001
                : 89
                : 4
                : 408-415
                Affiliations
                aKyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto; bWakayama Medical College, Wakayama; cNara Medical University and dTenri Hospital, Nara; eOsaka University Faculty of Medicine, fKinki University School of Medicine, gOsaka Saiseikai Nakatsu Hospital and hOsaka Prefectural Hospital, Osaka; iHyogo College of Medicine and jTakasago City Hospital, Hyogo, Japan
                Article
                46112 Nephron 2001;89:408–415
                10.1159/000046112
                11721158
                © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 2, References: 25, Pages: 8
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/46112
                Categories
                Original Paper

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