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      Numerical model for estimating RF-induced heating on a pacemaker implant during MRI: experimental validation.

      IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering

      anatomy & histology, Visible Human Projects, methods, Equipment Safety, Hot Temperature, Humans, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, adverse effects, Models, Biological, Pacemaker, Artificial, Pectoralis Muscles, Reproducibility of Results, Thorax, Electrodes, Implanted, Equipment Failure Analysis

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          MRI may cause tissue heating in patients implanted with pacemakers (PMs) or cardioverters/defibrillators. As a consequence, these patients are often preventatively excluded from MRI investigations. The issue has been studied for several years now, in order to identify the mechanisms involved in heat generation, and define safety conditions by which MRI may be extended to patients with active implants. In this sense, numerical studies not only widen the range of experimental measurements, but also model a realistic patient's anatomy on which it is possible to study individually the impact of the many parameters involved. In order to obtain reliable results, however, each and every numerical analysis needs to be validated by experimental evidence. Aim of this paper was to design and validate through experimental measurements, an accurate numerical model, which was able to reproduce the thermal effects induced by a birdcage coil on human tissues containing a metal implant, specifically, a PM. The model was then used to compare the right versus left pectoral implantation of a PM, in terms of power deposited at the lead tip. This numerical model may also be used as reference for validating simpler models in terms of computational effort.

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