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      Subsidies for propagation of native species in Brazil with medicinal potential: Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess Translated title: Subsídios para propagação de espécie nativa do Brasil com potencial medicinal: Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess

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          Abstract: Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. (guanandi) is a native species with medicinal potential and also generates expectation for commercial use (wood) and for recovery of degraded areas. These seeds have physical and mechanical dormancy, requiring techniques for dormancy release; knowledge of seed and seedling morphology that assists laboratory analysis and propagation of the species is also necessary. The objective of this study was to describe the morphological structures of the seeds and normal and abnormal seedlings of guanandi, and also investigate if complete extraction of the endocarp and the seed coat to overcome dormancy will affect the morphology and initial plant development, and consequently production of transplants. Guanandi seeds are large (1000 seed weight of 1480.9 g) with a hard seed coat; cotyledons account for most of the embryo and serve as a reserve; the embryonic axis is small (1.0-2.0 mm) in relation to the seed, yet it is differentiated. The seedlings have hypogeal cryptocotylar germination, with cotyledonary petioles, taproot, and epicotyl developing into a long stem and a tip protected by cataphylls. The main abnormalities in seedlings are related to the root system. Extraction of the endocarp and seed coat does not alter the morphology of seedlings and promotes their greater development, which may be an advantageous strategy.

          Translated abstract

          Resumo: Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. (guanandi) é uma espécie nativa com potencial medicinal e também com expectativa para exploração comercial (madeira) e recuperação de áreas degradadas. As sementes apresentam dormência física e mecânica, exigindo técnicas para superação, e necessitam de conhecimento da morfologia de sementes e plântulas que subsidie as análises em laboratório e a propagação da espécie. O objetivo desse trabalho foi descrever as estruturas morfológicas de sementes e plântulas normais e anormais de guanandi, e também investigar se a completa extração do endocarpo e do tegumento, para superação de dormência, interfere na morfologia e no desenvolvimento inicial da planta e, consequentemente, na produção de mudas. Sementes de guanandi são grandes (peso de mil sementes de 1.480,9 g), envoltas em endocarpo rígido; cotilédones respondem pela maior parte do embrião e têm função de reserva; eixo embrionário é pequeno (1,0-2,0 mm) em relação à semente, porém diferenciado. As plântulas apresentam germinação hipógea criptocotiledonar, com pecíolos cotiledonares, raiz pivotante, epicótilo desenvolvendo em haste longa e ápice protegido por catafilos. As principais anormalidades observadas em plântulas são relacionadas ao sistema radicular. A extração do endocarpo e do tegumento não altera a morfologia da plântula e proporciona maior desenvolvimento, podendo ser uma estratégia vantajosa.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Seed size, seedling morphology, and response to deep shade and damage in neotropical rain forest trees.

          To investigate the existence of coordinated sets of seedling traits adapted to contrasting establishment conditions, we examined evolutionary convergence in seedling traits for 299 French Guianan woody plant species and the stress response in a shadehouse of species representing seed size gradients within five major cotyledon morphology types. The French Guianan woody plant community has larger seeds than other tropical forest communities and the largest proportion of hypogeal cotyledon type (59.2%) reported for tropical forests. Yet the community includes many species with intermediate size seeds that produce seedlings with different cotyledonal morphologies. A split-plot factorial design with two light levels (0.8% and 16.1% PAR) and four damage treatments (control, seed damage, leaf damage, stem damage) was used in the shadehouse experiment. Although larger-seeded species had higher survival and slower growth, these patterns were better explained by cotyledon type than by seed mass. Even larger-seeded species with foliar cotyledons grew faster than species with reserve-type cotyledons, and survival after stem grazing was five times higher in seedlings with hypogeal cotyledons than with epigeal cotyledons. Thus, to predict seedling performance using seed size, seedling morphology must also be considered.
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            Flooding tolerance of Calophyllum brasiliense Camb. (Clusiaceae): morphological, physiological and growth responses

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              Evaluation of antiulcer activity of chromanone fraction from Calophyllum brasiliesnse Camb.

              Calophyllum brasiliense Camb. (Clusiaceae), popularly known as 'guanandi', is found in the tropical areas and swampy lands. The latex exuding from its bark is used in the treatment of gastric ulcer in folk medicine. Several active compounds have been isolated from its stem bark among them, are the chromanone acids. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate antiulcer activity and probable mechanism(s) of action of a fraction containing a mixture of chromanone acids (BI), derived by column chromatography fractionation of the hexane extract of the stem bark of Calophyllum brasiliense (HECb), using experimental in vitro and in vivo models. Ulcer was induced by oral administration of ethanol (75%, v/v) and indomethacin (50mg/kg). Malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione and catalase activity was measured in stomach tissue after ethanol induced ulcer. In order to evaluate the effect of BI on nitric oxide, ulcer was induced by ethanol in l-NAME pretreated animals. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity was verified in disk diffusion and broth microdilution in vitro assays, using cagA+ and vacA+ Helicobacter pylori strains. BI prevented the gastric ulceration caused by ethanol and indomethacin treatments. Its gastroprotective mechanism in ethanol-induced ulcer was partly due to reduction of MDA and CAT levels in the gastric tissue. BI did not affect the GSH levels and its gastroprotective effect was not reversed by pretreatment with l-NAME. BI showed anti-Helicobacter pylori in the both assays. The results indicate that BI is partly responsible for the HECb antiulcer and anti-Helicobacter pylori effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

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                Journal of Seed Science
                J. Seed Sci.
                ABRATES - Associação Brasileira de Tecnologia de Sementes (Londrina, PR, Brazil )
                July 2019
                : 41
                : 3
                : 318-327
                Colombo Paraná orgnameEmbrapa Florestas Brazil
                Curitiba Paraná orgnameUniversidade Federal do Paraná orgdiv1Departamento de Fitotecnia e Fitossanidade Brazil

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 30, Pages: 10
                Product Information: SciELO Brazil
                Original Article

                seedlings, seeds, morfologia, plântulas, morphology, sementes, guanandi


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