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      Renal rescue of dopamine D2 receptor function reverses renal injury and high blood pressure

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          Most cited references 47

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          Inflammation, immunity, and hypertension.

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            Synonymous mutations in the human dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) affect mRNA stability and synthesis of the receptor.

             J. Duan (2003)
            Although changes in nucleotide sequence affecting the composition and the structure of proteins are well known, functional changes resulting from nucleotide substitutions cannot always be inferred from simple analysis of DNA sequence. Because a strong synonymous codon usage bias in the human DRD2 gene, suggesting selection on synonymous positions, was revealed by the relative independence of the G+C content of the third codon positions from the isochoric G+C frequencies, we chose to investigate functional effects of the six known naturally occurring synonymous changes (C132T, G423A, T765C, C939T, C957T, and G1101A) in the human DRD2. We report here that some synonymous mutations in the human DRD2 have functional effects and suggest a novel genetic mechanism. 957T, rather than being 'silent', altered the predicted mRNA folding, led to a decrease in mRNA stability and translation, and dramatically changed dopamine-induced up-regulation of DRD2 expression. 1101A did not show an effect by itself but annulled the above effects of 957T in the compound clone 957T/1101A, demonstrating that combinations of synonymous mutations can have functional consequences drastically different from those of each isolated mutation. C957T was found to be in linkage disequilibrium in a European-American population with the -141C Ins/Del and TaqI 'A' variants, which have been reported to be associated with schizophrenia and alcoholism, respectively. These results call into question some assumptions made about synonymous variation in molecular population genetics and gene-mapping studies of diseases with complex inheritance, and indicate that synonymous variation can have effects of potential pathophysiological and pharmacogenetic importance.
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              Transfecting mammalian cells: optimization of critical parameters affecting calcium-phosphate precipitate formation.

              DNA-calcium phosphate co-precipitates arise spontaneously in supersaturated solutions. Highly effective precipitates for transfection purposes, however, can be generated only in a very narrow range of physico-chemical conditions that control the initiation and growth of precipitate complexes. The concentrations of calcium and phosphate are the main factors influencing characteristics of the precipitate complex, but other parameters, such as temperature, DNA concentration and reaction time are important as well. An example for this is the finding that almost all of the soluble DNA in the reaction mix can be bound into an insoluble complex with calcium phosphate in <1 min. Extending the reaction time to 20 min results in aggregation and/or growth of particles and reduces the level of expression. With improved protocols we gained better reproducibility and higher efficiencies both for transient and for stable transfections. Up to 60% of cells stained positive for beta-gal and transient production of secreted proteins was improved 5- to 10-fold over results seen with transfections using standard procedures. Similar improvements in efficiency (number of recombinant cell colonies) were observed with stable transfections, using co-transfected marker plasmids for selection. Transient expression levels 2 days after DNA transfer and titers obtained from stable cell lines, emerging weeks later, showed strong correlation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JCI Insight
                American Society for Clinical Investigation
                2379-3708
                June 2 2016
                June 2 2016
                : 1
                : 8
                Article
                10.1172/jci.insight.85888
                © 2016
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