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      Augmented Renal Clearance and How to Augment Antibiotic Dosing

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          Abstract

          Augmented renal clearance (ARC) refers to the state of heightened renal filtration commonly observed in the critically ill. Its prevalence in this patient population is a consequence of the body’s natural response to serious disease, as well as the administration of fluids and pharmacologic therapies necessary to maintain sufficient blood pressure. ARC is objectively defined as a creatinine clearance of more than 130 mL/min/1.73 m 2 and is thus a crucial condition to consider when administering antibiotics, many of which are cleared renally. Using conventional dosing regimens risks the possibility of subtherapeutic concentrations or clinical failure. Over the past decade, research has been conducted in patients with ARC who received a number of antibacterials frequently used in the critically ill, such as piperacillin-tazobactam or vancomycin. Strategies to contend with this condition have also been explored, though further investigations remain necessary.

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          Most cited references68

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          Prediction of Creatinine Clearance from Serum Creatinine

          A formula has been developed to predict creatinine clearance (C cr ) from serum creatinine (S cr ) in adult males: Ccr = (140 – age) (wt kg)/72 × S cr (mg/100ml) (15% less in females). Derivation included the relationship found between age and 24-hour creatinine excretion/kg in 249 patients aged 18–92. Values for C cr were predicted by this formula and four other methods and the results compared with the means of two 24-hour C cr’s measured in 236 patients. The above formula gave a correlation coefficient between predicted and mean measured Ccr·s of 0.83; on average, the difference between predicted and mean measured values was no greater than that between paired clearances. Factors for age and body weight must be included for reasonable prediction.
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            Therapeutic monitoring of vancomycin for serious methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections: A revised consensus guideline and review by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, and the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists

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              Vancomycin therapeutic guidelines: a summary of consensus recommendations from the infectious diseases Society of America, the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, and the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists.

              Practice guidelines for therapeutic monitoring of vancomycin treatment for Staphylococcus aureus infection in adult patients were reviewed by an expert panel of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, and the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists. A literature review of existing evidence regarding vancomycin dosing and monitoring of serum concentrations, in addition to patient outcomes combined with expert opinion regarding the drug's pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and safety record, resulted in new recommendations for targeting and adjustment of vancomycin therapy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Antibiotics (Basel)
                Antibiotics (Basel)
                antibiotics
                Antibiotics
                MDPI
                2079-6382
                09 July 2020
                July 2020
                : 9
                : 7
                : 393
                Affiliations
                Center for Anti-Infective Research and Development, Hartford Hospital, 80 Seymour Street, Hartford, CT 06102, USA; ichen362@ 123456gmail.com
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: david.nicolau@ 123456hhchealth.org ; Tel.: +1-860-972-3941
                Article
                antibiotics-09-00393
                10.3390/antibiotics9070393
                7399877
                32659898
                f3728c02-74b8-495e-9b05-d5a6d28c7da9
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 10 June 2020
                : 07 July 2020
                Categories
                Review

                augmented renal clearance,antibiotic,critical care,subtherapeutic,pharmacokinetics,pharmacodynamics

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