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      Systolic heart failure and cardiac resynchronization therapy: a focus on diastole

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          Abstract

          Conflicting data exist about the effects of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) on diastolic function (DF). Aim of the study was to assess if and how CRT affects DF in systolic heart failure patients. We also investigated potential relations between CRT-induced left ventricular changes and the composite clinical endpoint of progressive heart failure and cardiac death over 3 years follow-up. 119 CRT patients underwent clinical evaluation and echocardiography before CRT and 4 months later. DF was quantified by transmitral velocities [E/A waves, deceleration time (DT), E/DT], early diastolic mitral annulus velocity (E′), E/E′ ratio and 2-D speckle tracking strain rate during isovolumetric relaxation (IVR, SRivr). End-diastolic pressure–volume relationship (EDPVR) was also assessed noninvasively using a single-beat method. Overall stiffness was quantified by ventricular stiffness (K lv) normalized to end-diastolic volume (EDV). New York Heart Association class improved at 4 months (from 2.7 ± 0.7 to 1.9 ± 0.6, p < 0.001) as did ventricular filling (E/DT from 0.48 ± 0.29 to 0.39 ± 0.31 cm/s 2, p = 0.01). In contrast, relaxation (E′, SRivr) and filling pressures (E/E′, E/SRivr) did not change. Slope of EDPVR did not change with CRT. Such finding, together with an unmodified Klv/EDV and a 7 ± 18 % reduction in EDV ( p = 0.001), suggested reverse remodelling towards a smaller equilibrium volume. Finally, end-systolic LV volume decreased from 147 ± 59 to 125 ± 52 ml and ejection fraction increased from 0.26 ± 0.07 to 0.32 ± 0.09 (both p < 0.001). Using a Cox regression model we found that only changes (Δ) in diastolic, but not systolic indexes, correlated with the composite clinical endpoint, with increments in ΔEDV20 and ΔE/DT, single or combined, greatly increasing risk of heart failure and/or cardiac death ( p = 0.003). Ventricular reverse remodelling, together with improvement in ventricular filling, rather than improvements of systolic function, predict clinical prognosis long-term post-CRT.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Tissue Doppler imaging in the estimation of intracardiac filling pressure in decompensated patients with advanced systolic heart failure.

          The ratio of early transmitral velocity to tissue Doppler mitral annular early diastolic velocity (E/Ea) has been correlated with pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) in a wide variety of cardiac conditions. The objective of this study was to determine the reliability of mitral E/Ea for predicting PCWP in patients admitted for advanced decompensated heart failure. Prospective consecutive patients with advanced decompensated heart failure (ejection fraction 18 and 15 to identify a PCWP >18 mm Hg were 66% and 50%, respectively. Contrary to prior reports, we did not observe any direct association between changes in PCWP and changes in mitral E/Ea ratio. In decompensated patients with advanced systolic heart failure, tissue Doppler-derived mitral E/Ea ratio may not be as reliable in predicting intracardiac filling pressures, particularly in those with larger LV volumes, more impaired cardiac indices, and the presence of cardiac resynchronization therapy.
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            Optimal left ventricular lead position predicts reverse remodeling and survival after cardiac resynchronization therapy.

            The aim of the current study was to evaluate echocardiographic parameters after 6 months of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) as well as long-term outcome in patients with the left ventricular (LV) lead positioned at the site of latest activation (concordant LV lead position) as compared with that seen in patients with a discordant LV lead position. A nonoptimal LV pacing lead position may be a potential cause for nonresponse to CRT. The site of latest mechanical activation was determined by speckle tracking radial strain analysis and related to the LV lead position on chest X-ray in 244 CRT candidates. Echocardiographic evaluation was performed after 6 months. Long-term follow-up included all-cause mortality and hospitalizations for heart failure. Significant LV reverse remodeling (reduction in LV end-systolic volume from 189 +/- 83 ml to 134 +/- 71 ml, p < 0.001) was noted in the group of patients with a concordant LV lead position (n = 153, 63%), whereas patients with a discordant lead position showed no significant improvements. In addition, during long-term follow-up (32 +/- 16 months), less events (combined for heart failure hospitalizations and death) were reported in patients with a concordant LV lead position. Moreover, a concordant LV lead position appeared to be an independent predictor of hospitalization-free survival after long-term CRT (hazard ratio: 0.22, p = 0.004). Pacing at the site of latest mechanical activation, as determined by speckle tracking radial strain analysis, resulted in superior echocardiographic response after 6 months of CRT and better prognosis during long-term follow-up.
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              Single-beat estimation of end-diastolic pressure-volume relationship: a novel method with potential for noninvasive application.

              Whereas end-systolic and end-diastolic pressure-volume relations (ESPVR, EDPVR) characterize left ventricular (LV) pump properties, clinical utility of these relations has been hampered by the need for invasive measurements over a range of pressure and volumes. We propose a single-beat approach to estimate the whole EDPVR from one measured volume-pressure (Vm and Pm) point. Ex vivo EDPVRs were measured from 80 human hearts of different etiologies (normal, congestive heart failure, left ventricular assist device support). Independent of etiology, when EDPVRs were normalized (EDPVRn) by appropriate scaling of LV volumes, EDPVRns were nearly identical and were optimally described by the relation EDP = An.EDV (Bn), with An = 28.2 mmHg and Bn = 2.79. V0 (the volume at the pressure of approximately 0 mmHg) was predicted by using the relation V0 = Vm.(0.6 - 0.006.Pm) and V30 by V30 = V0 + (Vm,n - V0)/(Pm/An) (1/Bn). The entire EDPVR of an individual heart was then predicted by forcing the curve through Vm, Pm, and the predicted V0 and V30. This technique was applied prospectively to the ex vivo human EDPVRs not used in determining optimal An and Bn values and to 36 in vivo human, 12 acute and 14 chronic canine, and 80 in vivo and ex vivo rat studies. The root-mean-square error (RMSE) in pressure between measured and predicted EDPVRs over the range of 0-40 mmHg was < 3 mmHg of measured EDPVR in all settings, indicating a good predictive value of this approach. Volume-normalized EDPVRs have a common shape, despite different etiology and species. This allows the entire curve to be predicted by a new method with a potential for noninvasive application. The results are most accurate when applied to groups of hearts rather than to individual hearts.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +39-0321-3733597 , +39-0321-3733407 , paolo.marino@maggioreosp.novara.it
                Journal
                Int J Cardiovasc Imaging
                Int J Cardiovasc Imaging
                The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
                Springer Netherlands (Dordrecht )
                1569-5794
                1875-8312
                5 April 2014
                5 April 2014
                2014
                : 30
                : 897-905
                Affiliations
                [ ]Clinical Cardiology, Department of Translational Medicine, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria “Maggiore della Carità”, Università del Piemonte Orientale, Corso Mazzini 18, 28100 Novara, Italy
                [ ]Division of Cardiology, Columbia University, 177 Fort Washington, Avenue, New York, NY 10032 USA
                Article
                412
                10.1007/s10554-014-0412-1
                4008775
                24706254
                © The Author(s) 2014

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited.

                Categories
                Original Paper
                Custom metadata
                © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

                Cardiovascular Medicine

                diastolic function, cardiac resynchronization therapy, heart failure

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